Stool disorders (constipation and diarrhea) are often observed in the practice of emergency gastroenterology, attracting the attention of therapists and surgeons, infectious disease specialists, toxicologists, neuropathologists and other specialists.
Delayed stool and gas in combination with other local and general symptoms is a formidable sign of profound impairment of intestinal motor function and is observed with organic and functional obstruction. This symptom acquires great clinical significance with the accompanying disturbances of peristalsis. If in the absence of stool and gas a violent, peristalsis visible by the eye is found, intestinal obstruction should be suspected. If peristalsis is absent and “bloody silence” is observed during listening when there is bloating, this usually indicates intestinal paresis or peritonitis. The presence of stool and the passage of gases do not always exclude bowel obstruction. So, high obstruction for a long time can be accompanied by stool due to the emptying of the lower intestines.
In clinical practice, persistent constipation of alimentary and hypokinetic origin is often observed in people who have been in bed for a long time. In some cases - with diseases of the stomach, gall bladder, pancreas, urogenital sphere - their reflex effects on the intestine, causing its spasms or aggravating paresis, become important. In organic diseases of the central nervous system (cerebrovascular accident, tumors and injuries of the brain and spinal cord, meningitis, etc.), constipation occurs mainly as a result of impaired nervous regulation of the intestinal motor function and the act of defecation itself.
In the origin of constipation in patients in the intensive care unit, medical factors also play a role. Intestinal motility is significantly weakened by ganglion blockers, anticholinergics, sedatives, tranquilizers. With the abuse of laxatives, the motor function of the colon decreases. Constipation contributes to the prolonged use of certain antacids, cholestyramine, iron and calcium preparations.
Sometimes the proctogenic factor (hemorrhoids, rectal fissures, proctitis, etc.) becomes dominant in the mechanism of constipation. At the same time, the sensitivity of the nerve receptors of the rectal mucosa is weakened, the tone of the anal sphincters often increases and the act of defecation is frustrated.
Difficult intestinal emptying also occurs with a significant decrease in fecal mass and an increase in their hardness, which, in addition to the nutritional factor, is facilitated by significant fluid loss after diarrhea, heavy sweats during fever, after forced diuresis and vigorous use of diuretics.
The result of prolonged constipation, and sometimes the cause of mechanical intestinal obstruction are coprolites. Their most frequent localization is the rectal ampoule.
There are various mechanical causes of constipation - tumors, inflammatory and cicatricial narrowing of the colon, diverticulitis, Crohn's disease, lymphogranulomatosis, tuberculosis, foreign bodies, extraintestinal pathological processes, especially adhesions, compressing the intestine, etc.
If constipation occurs, the patient should undergo X-ray and endoscopic examinations.
Toxic constipation can occur in cases of poisoning with lead, mercury, thallium, etc. There are severe constipation in decompensated diabetes mellitus, myxedema, hyperparathyroidism, acromegaly, pheochromocytoma, and pathological menopause.
Diarrhea can be a sign of illness requiring emergency treatment. Diarrhea occurs with intestinal pathology, as well as with lesions of other organs and systems, manifested by a violation of the motor and secretory functions of the intestine.
Diarrhea occurs when the normal relationship between the secretion of fluid and its absorption in the intestines is disturbed, as well as with the accelerated movement of the contents through the intestines. It is customary to distinguish the following main pathogenetic mechanisms of diarrhea: impaired osmotic processes in the intestine, increased intestinal secretion, inhibition of active transport of ions through cell membranes in the intestine, increased permeability of intestinal epithelium, impaired intestinal motor function. Most often, diarrhea is due to a combination of pathogenetic mechanisms.
Enteral and colitic diarrhea are distinguished by clinical manifestations and the level of damage. Enteral diarrhea is usually characterized by a moderate increase in stool (4-6 times a day) and abundant bowel movements, which contain the remains of undigested food visible on the eye. In this case, steatorrhea is detected, patients complain of aching pains around the navel. Colitic diarrhea is characterized by very frequent stools (up to 10-15 or more times a day), meager bowel movements, often mixed with mucus and blood. Tenesmus is typical for colitis, since the rectum is usually involved in the process.
With "causeless" diarrhea in middle-aged and elderly people, lasting more than 2-3 weeks, a colon tumor should be suspected. It is very alarming, if there is a loss of body weight, blood appears in the feces.
Violation of the stool in severe patients can worsen the course of the disease and in some cases leads to serious consequences. Their neglect of stool disorders, even seemingly insignificant, is unacceptable - they must be corrected. It should also be remembered that chronic disorders of the stool can lead to exacerbation of certain diseases (intestinal diverticulosis, adhesive disease of the abdominal organs, ulcerative colitis, etc.).
Correction of stool disorders is performed as part of the etiological and pathogenetic therapy of the diseases in which they occur. Of great importance are the timely detection and surgical treatment of organic diseases, especially tumors.
With constipation of alimentary and hypokinetic type, an important role is played by a rational diet. A sufficient amount of fiber and liquid (1.5-2 liters per day) is included in the food. Useful are whole-wheat bread, fruit juices, prunes and figs soaked in water, sour milk, and vegetable oil. The volume of food should be sufficient.
Laxatives and antispasmodics are justified only as single appointments.
Fecal stones soften and reduce with the help of microclysters of Ognev, oil or siphon enemas. When the stone sinks into the rectal ampoule, it can be removed with a tool or finger. With the ineffectiveness of conservative treatment, surgery is indicated.
In the treatment of diarrhea, etiotropic therapy, a rational diet, restoration of water and electrolyte balance, detoxification and replacement measures are of primary importance. For infectious diarrhea, appropriate antibacterial drugs are used.
Causes of Diarrhea and Vomiting
Doctors say that fever and diarrhea, along with vomiting, are a protective reaction that the body demonstrates in response to an attack of bacteria, the spread of their metabolic products. The cause may be poor-quality components of dishes. To determine the underlying disease, all available signs should be carefully evaluated.
The appearance of both diarrhea and nausea, turning into vomiting can indicate:
- impaired gastrointestinal function,
- the presence of infections in the body,
- problems associated with the nervous system.
Diarrhea, vomiting, temperature up to 38 ° С, which is accompanied by chills, indicates either the presence of infection and a weak reaction of the immune system, or inflammatory processes that occur. It can be colitis or gastritis - and one and the other disease develops as a result of malnutrition, irregular meals and abuse of a dry hand. With colitis, severe pain can occur, but in the case of a mild course, only a small temperature is possible, holding on for a long time. In gastritis, the main symptoms are nausea and impaired stool.
A temperature of 38 ° C in an adult and its subsequent increase in combination with diarrhea, nausea and vomiting may indicate rotavirus. This condition can last from three to five days, but if you ignore treatment with a weak immune system, the period increases to 10 days. Rotavirus promotes dehydration, because its long course requires the help of specialists. In the early stages, it is necessary to prevent a critical loss of fluid and stop the symptoms with Smecta or Linex.
Causes of constipation:
Improper nutrition. The most common reason is a diet that is dominated by foods high in fat (dairy products, eggs, fatty meat) and refined sugar (flour products, sweets, sodas), but not enough dietary fiber (fruits, vegetables) that improve the movement of food through the intestines and contribute to the formation of feces.
Inadequate water intake.
Incorrect toilet use. Constipation occurs when a person ignores the urge to defecate due to employment in the workplace or hostility to public toilets. As a result, over time, the urge to defecate becomes minimal.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS). Spasms of muscle fibers in the wall of the colon lead to a slowdown in the movement of feces, constipation develops.
Excessive use of laxatives. Frequent use of laxatives is addictive, and the intestines no longer respond to laxatives.
Hormonal disorders. Diseases of the thyroid gland, in which the production of hormones by its cells decreases and hypothyroidism develops. Constipation is observed with hormonal imbalance in diabetes mellitus during pregnancy.
Diseases of the nervous system - injuries of the spinal cord and its tumor, multiple sclerosis, stroke, Parkinson's disease.
Gastrointestinal tract diseases - ulcer, chronic pancreatitis.
Violation of blood flow due to atherosclerosis of the vessels that feed the intestines leads to a slowdown of intestinal motility and impaired movement of feces.
Hemorrhoids or anal fissure lead to spasm of the anal sphincter and impaired bowel movements.
A mechanical obstruction to the feces is a tumor in the lumen of the intestine, a commissure or scar on the wall of the intestine.
- narcotic pain medication
- iron supplements to treat anemia,
- anticonvulsants for the treatment of epilepsy,
- gastric acid lowering agents
- antiparkinsonian drugs
- calcium channel blockers for the treatment of hypertension.
Causes of diarrhea:
Intestinal infections - from foodborne toxicosis (“poisoning” by stale products) to salmonella and cholera.
Autoimmune diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, when the body produces antibodies against intestinal cells: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis.
Tumors of the colon.
Inadequate formation of enzymes involved in the digestion of food in chronic pancreatitis.
Violation of the nervous regulation of the intestine - irritable bowel syndrome.
- antitumor agents
- hormones - prostaglandins.
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Causes of diarrhea disorders
The causes of gastric disorders are different factors, like just dirty hands, and a serious infectious lesion. The main causes of stool disorders with diarrhea are:
- A sharp change in climatic conditions.
- Travelers often encounter this problem on the 2-3rd day of their stay in another country with an unusual climate. Consumption of unusual foods, water with a different composition, intense heat - cause stress and malfunction of the intestines,
- Alcohol abuse.
- Violation of the stool occurs in the morning after taking large doses of alcohol. Alcoholic beverages, even beer, poison the body and provoke an acceleration of intestinal contractions,
- Stress and nervous strain.
- The functionality of the intestinal tract is closely related to the nervous system. With large nervous overloads, intestinal function is disturbed, a disorder in the form of diarrhea begins,
- Allergic reactions.
- Allergies due to individual intolerance to foods are a common cause of allergic diarrhea. The first manifestations can occur in 2-3 hours, and sometimes in a day, which makes it difficult to establish the correct diagnosis,
- The defeat of dysbiosis.
- The disease is caused by violations in the quantitative composition of the bacterial microflora of the intestine, which provokes severe diarrhea,
- Gastrointestinal diseases.
- Digestive tract diseases, especially those of a chronic nature, are almost always accompanied by diarrhea. Stool liquefaction is caused by a pathological violation of the digestive function or by the passage of bile into the intestinal tract, which has a laxative effect,
- Drug abuse.
- Prolonged and uncontrolled use of therapeutic agents often causes adverse reactions. For example, an imbalance of intestinal microflora with upset stool.
A common cause of diarrhea with abdominal pain is poisoning. Intoxication of the body has different degrees of severity. Diarrhea without fever with cramping pain usually indicates household poisoning with poor-quality food. The disorder will pass after ridding the intestines of toxic substances.
Acute pain with fever and diarrhea accompanies inflammation of the large and small intestines that occurs with colitis (enterocolitis).
- the defeat of acute intestinal infections - viral, bacterial or fungal,
- about the development or exacerbation of gastrointestinal diseases - gastritis, pancreatitis,
- severe overeating and poisoning,
- inflammation of appendicitis,
- about Crohn’s disease.
Diarrhea with sharp pains and fever, which does not stop for 2 days is an occasion for compulsory medical attention.
Attacks of nausea with possible vomiting with diarrhea are a sign of a bacterial infection. Most often, this symptom occurs during infection:
- dysentery caused by Shigella bacteria. This microorganism develops mainly in the large intestine,
- cholera, a life-threatening infection caused by a cholera embryo,
- salmonellosis caused by the bacteria salmonella. Microorganisms affect the intestinal tract and provoke emetic attacks with severe diarrhea.
Diseases caused by infection of the intestines are very dangerous. Seeking medical help is mandatory, especially for prolonged nausea with vomiting.
Symptoms of the disorder
Disorders of stools with liquid bowel movements have approximately the same symptoms in all age groups, noting:
- increased gas, bloating and abdominal pain,
- frequent watery stools
- poor appetite
- severe weakness with periodic dizziness.
Diarrhea itself is a concomitant symptom of a number of painful conditions and pathologies.
Often, diarrhea that occurs immediately after eating is functional in nature, developing against a background of stress, as a reaction to an overexcitation of the nervous system. Characteristic symptoms of the disorder:
- lack of pain
- the rapid development of flatulence,
- yellow stools of liquid consistency,
- the presence of undigested pieces of food and mucus in the stool,
- palpation moderate pain throughout the abdomen.
When treating with antibacterial agents, a side reaction is possible - frequent urge to defecate. Overdose or prolonged medication (more than 2 weeks) provoke diarrhea.
Long-term antibiotic therapy causes inhibition of beneficial microflora. which affects the digestion and digestibility of foods. With prolonged pathology, the following are noted:
Usually unpleasant symptoms disappear 2-3 days after the end of the course of antibiotics.
In case of poisoning
Serious food poisoning is accompanied by severe diarrhea, which is accompanied by other, no less dangerous symptoms:
- stool frequency increases to 10-15 times per day,
- the temperature rises sharply and does not go astray for several days,
- streaks of blood may appear in the feces,
- profuse, frequent vomiting occurs
- severe pain in the abdomen,
- weakness, chills, dizziness,
- with mushroom poisoning, hallucinations may occur.
With mushroom poisoning, botulism may develop with additional symptoms:
- dry mouth and difficulty swallowing,
- convulsive syndrome.
In case of carbon monoxide poisoning, in addition to stool disorder, the following manifestations are observed:
- shortness of breath, sore throat and suffocation,
- headache and dizziness,
- lacrimation, nausea and vomiting.
Diarrhea during teething of the first cloves is a common condition in infants. During this period, they undergo physiological changes, so parents need to carefully monitor the nature of the baby's bowel movements. Usually, the stool becomes a little quicker (up to 3-4 times a day), acquiring a slight water content. Additional symptoms of diarrhea include:
- profuse salivation
- decreased or complete lack of appetite,
- bad mood - vagaries, frequent crying,
- poor sleep, daytime disturbances,
Possible increase in temperature, sometimes up to significant values (39 0 C).
The duration of physiological diarrhea can be from 2 to 3 days.
Digestive upset is the most common gastrointestinal pathology. Her symptoms are often mild - a slight upset of the stool with increased gas formation and abdominal pain. With a severe form of indigestion, the frequency of watery stools increases, causing dehydration with the risk of serious harm to health.
Digestion can occur with any dysfunction of the digestive tract in all age categories.
What constitutes a bowel movement
Due to the anatomical features, the human body gets rid of processed food through the anus. In medicine, this phenomenon is called an act of defecation.
In a healthy body, this process is carried out once a day. Frequency of toilet use affects stool consistency. The less often a person empties the rectum, the harder the stool.
The process of waste disposal is controlled by the central nervous system. When feces move from the sigmoid region to the ampoule of the rectum, a person feels the urge to empty it. He can control this process from 1.5 years.
Stool disorders and their causes
In medicine, cases have been recorded when the intestinal mucosa was damaged under the influence of its contents. The person was diagnosed with peritonitis, which led to death.
Many disorders are the result of serious pathologies. Any disease requires the attention of an experienced doctor. After a physical examination and based on the results of the tests, he will make an accurate diagnosis.
- gastroenterological and proctological diseases,
- the development of inflammatory and ulcerative processes that affect the stomach, intestines, liver and bile ducts,
- intestinal infection, helminths,
- hemorrhoids or anal fissures,
- prolapse of the colon
- chronic pathological processes in the stomach and intestines.
The development of malignant cells can cause pain and difficulty removing feces. Persistent constipation, when a person cannot go to the toilet for a long time, leads to diseases of a neuropsychiatric or vertebral neurological nature.
Against the background of developing pathological processes, muscle tone, intestinal motility are disturbed. Diagnosed problems in the functioning of the neural-conductor system.
The frequency of the stool should be at least 1 time per day. Specialists warn their patients that a delay of 32 hours indicates the development of constipation.
In many ways, bowel movements depend on a person’s lifestyle. Every day, 70% of the population visit the toilet and empty the intestines, 25% of them remove feces from the intestines several times a day. There is a category of people (5%) whose stool is observed less than 1 time per day.
Normally, the process of bowel movement in an adult and a child is observed from 3 times a day to 1 for two days. With regular disturbances in normal bowel movements, constipation develops.
In the process of cleansing the intestine, a person pushes. This is a normal occurrence if it occupies no more than 20% of the total time for excreting feces. If straining requires a strong tension of the muscles of the abdominal cavity or additional stimulation of the anus, this indicates the development of constipation.
One indicator of a rare bowel movement in a child or an adult is solid feces. The main cause of violations is the low fluid content in the human body.
Normally, water makes up to 70% of feces. The remaining percentage is processed food, dead intestinal cells and dead pathogens.
In many ways, the act of defecation depends on the nutrition of the person. The color of the contents of the colon should be brown. A dark shade indicates a violation of the digestive process or the development of constipation. Light feces is the result of increased contraction of the intestinal wall.
As for the appearance of feces, the cylindrical shape is considered normal. The smell is pronounced, but not sharp. It all depends on the composition of the foods eaten, as well as the processes of decay and fermentation.
Often the excretion of feces is accompanied by gases. It is a natural by-product of the fermentation and digestion process..
Defecation is affected by the diet, quality and quantity of food, as well as how regularly a person eats.
When the first signs of a violation appear, you cannot postpone a visit to a specialist. A complete medical examination and treatment is necessary to prevent the development of the effects of constipation and complications.
Joining other symptoms
Often, in addition to vomiting and diarrhea, pain occurs in the abdomen, which indicates the possibility of development:
- ulcerative pathology of the stomach and duodenum,
- chronic hepatitis,
Specialists will be able to confirm any of these diagnoses only on the basis of the obtained analysis results. Diseases that are on the list, in addition to diarrhea, pain and vomiting, may be accompanied by bitterness in the oral cavity, belching with a sour taste, discolored bowel movements. These signs may accompany dyskinesia of the bile duct, nausea, which can go into vomiting only in case of an overly advanced condition, and yellow plaque on the tongue, especially noticeable after eating, are added to the symptoms.
Symptoms of vomiting, diarrhea, fever, and weakness can indicate normal poisoning, but they can also be signs of appendicitis if pain on the right joins the list, intensifying when pressed. In this case, urgent help of specialists is necessary, delay is fraught with death.
It is possible that these signs arose on the background of stress or emotional upset. A state can provoke a sharp change in living conditions, work - any stressful situation becomes a source of excess adrenaline, causing nausea, which turns into vomiting, impaired stool, fever and sudden weakness. Typically, such reactions are harmless, because the malaise caused by psychological factors is quick. But if stress lasts long enough, turning into depression, the condition may worsen, leading to disorders of the nervous system.
Separately, there is the problem of frustration in infants. The peculiarity of their stool is associated with the launch of the digestive system, its addiction to the ingestion of food outside the mother’s womb. In the first month of life, the child defecates 8-10 times a day, by the end of the second month, the frequency of normal stool decreases, a delay can occur (2-3 days). This is considered the norm with good nutrition, a good night's sleep and no bloated tummy. Parents need to worry and consult a doctor for signs of watery, foamy stool with mucus and an unpleasant (sour) smell.
A simple digestive disorder lasts in the baby from 2 to 5 days. More serious symptoms may occur with a toxic cause of diarrhea:
- fever with a sharp jump in temperature,
- increased watery stool up to 20 times per day,
- frequent and severe vomiting
- constant thirst
- convulsive attacks and decreased reflexes.
This situation requires an early doctor call.
In an adult healthy person, the daily amount of excreted feces is approximately 300 grams. The consistency of the discharge depends on the fiber content in the food and the residues of un assimilated water. Violation of the digestive function provokes a deterioration in the process of fluid absorption - it is excreted in the feces during defecation. There is a disorder in the form of diarrhea. In acute forms of gastrointestinal diseases, diarrhea lasts 2-3 weeks, if longer, then we can talk about the transition of the disease to a chronic form.
With aging, disorders in the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract system are manifested more strongly, which provokes constant stool disorders - diarrhea and constipation. For an elderly person, such dysfunctions are dangerous, especially diarrhea. A pensioner can defecate with watery feces more than 5-6 times a day, which is fraught with the rapid development of dehydration. In old age, diarrhea can cause exacerbation of chronic chronic diseases.
The danger of diarrhea during pregnancy is determined by the cause of the pathology and its course.
Short diarrhea with toxicosis, in the early stages, is associated with hormonal changes in the expectant mother. Another reason is the microorganisms that provoke this condition. They live in the intestines and do not threaten the fetus.
However, in case of poisoning, especially with mushrooms, when visiting the toilet reaches 5-6 times a day, there is a danger of intoxication. Penetration of toxic substances through the placenta to the embryo. This can cause abnormalities in the development of the fetus.
If the bowel movements are too long, it is imperative to consult a specialist to prevent the risk of premature birth. Severe diarrhea at the beginning or end of pregnancy is fraught with dehydration.
What to do with loose stool?
When liquefying bowel movements without serious symptoms, you can self-medicate. If the condition worsens, diarrhea intensifies or the appearance of adverse symptoms, it is necessary to seek medical attention from a gastroenterologist. After passing the examination, the doctor will prescribe a course of drug therapy, but the main recommendations will be dietary - nutrition and compliance with the regimen.
The dietary scheme, based on the established diagnosis, is selected by a specialist. The basic rules of the diet for loose stool:
- Eat only mashed foods or gruel-like foods.
- Food should not be hot (not higher than 40 0 С) or too cold (below 20 0 С).
- Irritable bowels too acidic, salty or bitter foods are excluded.
- Products causing fermentation and rotting in the intestines are limited.
- Fragrant condiments or products saturated with essential oils are also excluded.
- The food is steamed, cooked or stewed.
- yesterday’s white bread and crackers,
- diet (low-fat) meat and fish dishes,
- light fat-free soups
- mashed porridge from buckwheat, oatmeal, rice,
- skim dairy products - cottage cheese, soufflé,
- pear and berry jelly, a rosehip broth, green and black tea.
Not recommended consumption:
- fatty meat or fish dishes, rich soups,
- fresh baked goods with baking,
- dairy products,
- cereals, pasta, legumes,
- raw fruits or vegetables
- coffee, soda, too hot or cold drinks.
In addition to strict adherence to diet, you must adhere to a diet:
- reduce one-time servings of dishes,
- increase the number of meals up to 6 times a day.
The usual menu can be gradually introduced 10-15 days after the restoration of normal stool.
With severe diarrhea, you must follow the drinking regimen, constantly replenish the deficiency of fluid. To do this, drink:
- only boiled or mineral (without gas!) water,
- freshly squeezed juices from vegetables (carrots, celery),
- with the attenuation of acute manifestations, orange and apple juices can be used,
- chamomile infusion.
Physiological disorder of the stool with the following diet and diet usually goes away without taking medication.
Antidiarrheal and fixing agents
To reduce the motor activity (motility) of the intestine, agents that inhibit the movement of feces are used - fixing and antidiarrheal drugs. They additionally activate the tone of the anal sphincter, which weakens with diarrhea. The most famous drugs:
- Fixing agent that reduces intestinal motility.
- The medicine is available in the form of absorbable tablets or capsules.
- Does not eliminate stool disorder after taking antibiotics.
- It has side effects in the form of constipation and increased gas formation.
- Forbidden to children under 6 years old,
- Symptomatic with a quick action, stops diarrhea in 2-3 hours.
- With bloody discharge, liver disease, high fever - the drug is prohibited for use,
- Chewable tablets with loperamide hydrochloride having antidiarrheal properties.
- They are used for acute and chronic diarrhea.
- Recommended for children after 6 years.
Enterosorbents are indicated for diarrhea in two directions:
- In food poisoning, using its adsorbing properties, they bind and remove toxic substances from the digestive tract.
- Absorb excess fluid from the intestinal cavity, drying the stool.
Good effect gives:
- "Activated carbon"
- The cheapest pills for bloating and diarrhea. They act quickly, stop toxins well, normalize the intestinal microflora.
- Powdered drug used for any digestive upset
- A powder preparation for use in toxic diarrhea (poisoning).
- It does not have the same effect with a simple physiological disorder.
- A detoxifying agent that relieves diarrhea and vomiting.
- Assign to children over one year of age in the doses prescribed in the instructions.
Means replenishing the water-salt balance
With prolonged diarrhea, you need to monitor your own condition:
For quick recovery there are rehydration drugs:
- The soluble tabletted agent in water.
- Reception of the finished solution is indicated for acute diarrhea.
- A powder that is also diluted with water.
- The basis of the drug is potassium and sodium salts, restoring the balance of electrolytes.
- The drug is taken after defecation in a dosage prescribed by a doctor.
- Crystal powder in bags.
- The finished solution is consumed in small doses, every 5-10 minutes throughout the day.
Rehydrants are a mandatory part of the treatment of diarrhea, are prescribed for any intestinal disorders.
Widely prescribed by doctors to solve digestive problems. Enzymatic agents stimulate the activity of enzymes or replace with insufficient synthesis. Facilitate the work of the pancreas, helping the processes of absorption and digestion of food. In case of dyspeptic diarrhea due to a lack of enzymes, they are suitable for treatment:
- Mezim (Pancreatin), Pancitrat, Creon containing pancreatin,
- "Pancurmen" with the content of pancreatin and the choleretic component,
- "Panzinorm" containing bile and hydrochloric acids, amino acids, pancreatin,
- “Festal”, “Digestal”, “Enzistal” with the content of bile and hemicellulase components,
- "Pankreoflat", "Pepfiz" with the content of a component that reduces the formation of gases.
In case of serious intestinal diseases, preparations with hemicellulase are recommended, which:
- effectively prevents gas formation,
- inhibits fermentation processes,
- improves the digestive process.
Intestinal microflora recovery preparations
Means for restoring intestinal microflora, for example, after antibiotic therapy, are called probiotics. If there is a violation of the bacterial balance in the intestine, complicated by loose stools, it is recommended to take:
- Consists of dry lactobacilli.
- Restores beneficial microflora, normalizes stool, accelerates metabolism in the intestines.
- A popular remedy for the restoration of microflora with diarrhea.
- You should not drink alcohol when taking it.
- The drug is allowed for children from birth.
- Consists of live bifidobacteria.
- Available in the form of powders, tablets, capsules.
- Combination with antibiotic drugs is prohibited.
- Hilak Forte
- Contains biosynthetic lactic acid.
- Supports the growth of beneficial microflora, inhibiting pathogenic, improves the secretory function of the stomach.
In case of digestive upset with diarrhea caused by the penetration of various infections and pathogenic microbes into the intestinal tract, antibacterial and antimicrobial agents are used. Therapeutic recommendations for taking drugs have a wide range, the most common are:
- Destroys pathogenic microflora in food poisoning or dysentery.
- The drug is prohibited for babies up to a year, for women during pregnancy and lactation.
- Indispensable for any intestinal tract infections.
- It has a wide spectrum of action.
- Recommended for children from 2 months of age.
- Strong antibiotic with bacteriostatic properties, capable of destroying protein compounds.
- It is recommended in cases of brucellosis, diseases of the biliary tract, salmonellosis, typhoid.
Treatment of stool disorder with folk recipes
Century-old traditional medicine has a large number of recipes to alleviate the condition with a disorder of stool. These are means with astringent and enveloping properties. They relieve irritation of nerve endings in the intestines, create an obstacle for microbial agents.
Astringents contain substances that, after interacting with the intestinal mucosa, form a dense film coating of the intestinal walls, which reduces irritation, pain and contributes to the death of pathogenic microbes. For diarrhea use:
- Pomegranate peels.
- The red pomegranate peel is cleaned of the inner white layer and dried in the oven. Grind (you can in a coffee grinder) and brew 1 teaspoon of 250 ml of boiling water. They languish in a water bath for 15-20 minutes, insist for half an hour. After filtering, take 1 tbsp. spoon before eating. It should be noted that pomegranate decoction is not combined with the use of antihistamines.
- Oak bark.
- Dried and crushed bark from young spring oak shoots (0.5 cups) are brewed with boiling water (250 ml) and simmer for 30 minutes. Take 2 tbsp. spoons 3 times a day,
- Strong tea.
- Black or green tea without aromatic additives (3-4 tbsp.spoons) is brewed with half a liter of boiling water. Drink a glass, slightly diluting with warm water, up to 4 times a day.
The action of folk remedies with an enveloping effect is also aimed at creating a protective film coating on the inflamed intestinal walls. The composition of this film is mucus. Folk remedies contain components that swell from water, creating colloidal solutions. The mucous membrane absorbs excess water well, stopping diarrhea, protects the intestinal wall from irritation and inflammation. These funds are especially useful for ulcerative lesions in the stomach and intestines:
- A decoction of rice.
- Grains (2 tablespoons) are soaked for an hour in cold water (250 ml). Then dipped in 1 liter of boiling water and cook, stirring constantly, for about an hour. After straining, take 100 ml with a frequency of 3 hours,
- A decoction of oatmeal.
- Oat grains (1 cup) are washed and poured with cold water (1 liter) and left for 8-10 hours. Then put on a slow fire and languish for about half an hour. Pour into a thermos and let it brew for 2-3 hours. After straining, dilute with warm water, bringing the volume to 1 liter. Take 100 ml 30 minutes before meals,
- A solution of potato starch.
- Powder (1 tbsp.spoon) is diluted with warm water (1 cup) and taken 120 ml in between meals,
- Infusion of mallow.
- Dried plant flowers (1 tbsp.spoon) are brewed with boiling water (250 ml), insisted for 2-3 hours, filtered and taken for 1 tbsp. spoon up to 4 times a day.
Use of folk remedies in the treatment of liquid stool should be based on the general condition of the person, his chronic diseases and medications that he takes. In any case, medical advice on the benefits of folk recipes will not be superfluous.