Gastritis is a constantly recurring, long-running disease of the stomach with alternating periods of exacerbation and remission, the symptoms of which are not always pronounced in adults, and in old age are generally blurry, which makes it difficult to diagnose and prescribe treatment. According to statistics, from 50 to 70% of the adult population suffer from chronic gastritis. Given that this pathology of the gastrointestinal tract is characterized by a progressive course, the treatment of chronic gastritis requires maximum timeliness and comprehensive supportive care.
Types of gastritis in adults
In acute inflammation, the following are possible:
- karate or fibrinous gastritis,
- corrosive or phlegmonous.
As for the chronic illness, in this case, gastritis is autoimmune or bacterial in nature. The classification here is as follows:
- superficial and hypertrophic,
- involving glandular tissue and atrophic.
Depending on the production of gastric juice, hyperacid - with increased acidity, and hypoacid - with reduced.
Chronic gastritis - inflammation of the gastric mucosa, leading to a disruption of its normal activity, which ultimately affects the overall digestion process. Regular exacerbations provoke pathological changes in the structure of the mucosa and degeneration of the glands secreting enzymes, hydrochloric acids. With prolonged inflammation, their dystrophy is manifested by a gradual replacement of connective tissue and, as a result, deterioration, and then cessation of work. In this case, the secretion decreases, and with it the acidity of the gastric juice decreases, followed by achilia. All these changes in the structure of the mucosa cause digestive disorders, which is manifested by the corresponding symptoms - signs. And with the development of gastritis in adults, the symptoms become brighter.
But you need to contact a therapist or gastroenterologist immediately after the first signs of chronic gastritis appear.
What is chronic gastritis
This pathology in adults is a long-term disease of the stomach with characteristic features (a change in the structure of the mucous organ and its inflammation). If the disease is not treated, this can lead to the loss by the glands of the epithelium of the ability to regenerate and replace normal epithelial cells with connective tissue. The disease also provokes serious functional disorders, which are expressed in secretory secretions of pepsin and hydrochloric acid.
About 70% of all inhabitants of the planet are affected by pathology. Gastritis with a chronic course can be divided into many subspecies, which have their own symptoms and need therapy when exacerbations occur.
On a note! Chronic gastritis is quite difficult to diagnose and often goes away without obvious or mild symptoms, which increases the risk of complications of the disease in the form of peritonitis, ulcers and stomach cancer.
When inflammation of the gastric mucosa passes to the duodenum 12, gastroduodenitis is formed.
Types and forms of gastritis
Depending on the form of the inflammatory process, gastritis in adults can be acute or chronic, depending on the level of hydrochloric acid in the stomach, there are:
- gastritis with low acidity,
- with normal acidity
- with high acidity.
Depending on the cause of origin:
- infectious - type B associated with Helicobacter pylori
- non-infectious in nature - type A, autoimmune associated with a hereditary predisposition.
1 Disease development
The causes of the appearance of a chronic form of gastritis in people can be very different. Most often, you can find the following causes of gastritis:
- Pathogenic microflora enters the stomach: Helicobacter pylori or other types of microbes.
- The reasons may also be of non-microbial origin: autoimmune factors, alcoholic, develops after surgery on the stomach, due to the influence of anti-inflammatory drugs or various kinds of chemicals.
- Other factors that experts today have not been able to establish can cause chronic gastritis.
As shown by numerous practice, the chronic form of neatrophic gastritis in almost 90% of all cases begins to develop due to the fact that Helicobacter pylori enters the body of a sick person. Atrophic or autoimmune gastritis in a chronic condition in some people is due to the fact that at the genetic level, autoantibodies to the cells of the mucous membrane of the affected organ are produced.
At the same time, the most common causes of reactive chronic gastritis are that bile is thrown into the stomach from the intestines. An aggravation of the situation is also caused by taking medicines too long, especially antibiotics.
If we talk about the eosinophilic type of the disease, then the causes of gastritis in this case are unknown to specialists. In some sick people with such a diagnosis, bronchial asthma, eczema or other allergic diseases are additionally diagnosed.
If the patient has granulomatous gastritis, the reasons for it are not established by the doctors to the end. But after numerous studies, specialists received statistics: this type of chronic gastritis is observed in about 10% of all patients with sarcoidosis. 7% of those people who suffer from mycoses, tuberculosis, Crohn's disease or if there are foreign bodies in the stomach have the same problem.
If they diagnosed chronic giant hypertrophic gastritis, its causes are also unknown, and most experts do not even have any assumptions about what could provoke the development of such a complex form of the disease.
Specialists found that granulomatous gastritis is observed in about 7% of people who have Crohn's disease.
Common symptoms of gastritis in adults
When diagnosing gastritis, the symptoms, as well as treatment, depend on the form in which gastritis occurs. In addition, the individual characteristics of the patient's body play an important role in the manifestation of the disease.
General symptoms are as follows:
- There is a weakness.
- Nausea and vomiting.
- Pain in the epigastrium appears.
- The patient loses weight.
- Disorders in the work of the heart and blood vessels are observed.
- Constant drowsiness.
- A person becomes irritable.
- Lack of appetite.
- Disturbed taste.
- Stool problems.
If you suddenly have pain or heaviness in the stomach, belching with an unpleasant smell of long-eaten food, and a plaque appears on the tongue, you should definitely consult a doctor. It is important to prevent the transition of the disease into a chronic form when a decrease in appetite, heartburn and an unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth are added to these symptoms.
Symptoms of chronic gastritis depend on the degree of damage to the mucosa, the localization of the inflammatory process and the type of disease. But there are common symptoms that are found in most patients. These include:
- Frequent pain in the stomach, of varying duration, intensity, time of occurrence. But there is always a connection with food intake.
- Dyspeptic symptoms: nausea after eating, belching with or without odor, sometimes acidic, burning, epigastric heaviness, constipation or stool instability.
- Common symptoms indicating a far-reaching process: general weakness, dryness of the skin, hair, their fragility, delamination of the nail plates, loss of appetite. These are indicators of hypovitaminosis, micronutrient deficiency and developing anemia with mucosal atrophy.
- Symptoms of asthenoneurotic syndrome are sometimes present - irritability, poor sleep, the cardiovascular system reacts with cardialgia, rarely arrhythmias, and instability of blood pressure is observed.
According to the latest Houston classification, the following chronic gastritis is distinguished:
- Atrophic (autoimmune, type A), the main mechanism of development is a violation in the immune system. In pathogenesis - atrophic changes in the mucosa, more than the bottom and body of the stomach, manifested by reduced acidity. In the clinic, the main manifestations of gastric (nausea, belching with a rotten smell, heaviness that persists for a long time after eating) and intestinal (bloating, frequent gas discharge with a fetid odor, rumbling of the intestine, tendency to diarrhea) are dyspepsia. Pain sensations, if they arise, are more due to stretching of the wall of the stomach. In such cases, patients complain of pressing pain in the epigastric region.
- Chronic neatrophic gastritis (type B, superficial antral gastritis). The mucous membrane is damaged due to Helicobacter pylori infection and other damaging factors that increase the acidity of the gastric juice. Patients complain more about pains under the “spoon” of a different nature, but strong spasmodic pains that appear immediately or some time after eating are more prevalent. Nocturnal, hungry - pains are characteristic for involvement in the process of the pyloric stomach. Nausea, vomiting at the height of pain, increased salivation, sour belching, an unpleasant metallic taste in the mouth, burning under the “spoon”, and often heartburn are also observed. From the intestines - a tendency to constipation.
- Atrophic multifocal (mixed, type A and B). In etiology, the main role is given to: Helicobacter pylori, other damaging environmental factors and nutrition. With this pathology, inflammatory phenomena of the mucous membrane of the entire stomach are observed. Moreover, in the antrum there are foci of superficial gastritis with seeding with the aforementioned bacterium and manifestations of increased acidity. The bottom, the body has deeper mucosal damage, manifested to varying degrees by secondary atrophic changes as a result of a long-lasting superficial gastritis associated with the infectious factor. The secretion and acidity of gastric juice, respectively, in these departments will be reduced. In the clinical picture, those symptoms that reflect a more pronounced pathological process will prevail. And these are most often dyspeptic symptoms. The complaints are predominantly heavy after taking “heavy” food in the epigastric region, pressing pain, belching, nausea, sometimes vomiting, unstable stool. Symptoms of a general nature may join.
Various factors can provoke a disease, from malnutrition to constant stress.
One of the main causes of the disease is a violation of the diet. This may include a lack of nutrients, an abundance of "wrong" food (fatty, fried, excess seasonings and sauces, dry food), violation of the regimen and chewing food. About what chronic gastritis is, many patients will learn even at school age.
The following disorders can also be provocateurs of chronic gastritis of the stomach:
- alcohol abuse
- other pathologies of the gastrointestinal tract,
- pathogenic fungi and bacteria,
- oral diseases
- prolonged use of medications.
- genetic predisposition
- endocrine pathologies,
- violation of metabolic processes.
For the proper treatment of chronic gastritis, it is necessary to identify its cause. The purpose of therapeutic measures is to remove not only inflammation of the mucosa, but also to eliminate their root cause. This is to prevent further exacerbations.
It is impossible to make a diagnosis on your own. Only a specialist can identify the exact form after conducting special studies of the mucosa. After collecting an anamnesis, laboratory and instrumental studies are prescribed:
- general urine and blood tests,
- stool analysis - coproscopy,
- culture inoculation - if necessary,
- X-ray of the stomach with barium - if FGDS is impossible,
- examination of the secretory functions of the stomach - pH meter,
- Ultrasound of the abdominal cavity,
- detection of H. pylori infection (urease breath test).
When the diagnosis is already confirmed, the doctor draws up a plan for treating chronic gastritis.
Therapeutic measures for the treatment of chronic gastritis in adults are aimed at alleviating the symptoms, normalizing the functions of the stomach and stopping the pathological process. An integrated approach is needed, which includes:
- taking medications
- folk remedies (optional),
- medical diet.
Methods of treating gastritis in adults at home
Fighting an ailment with medication
In the case when gastritis develops against the background of Helicobacter bacteria, a course of antibiotics lasting one and a half to two weeks is prescribed.
To improve the motor function of the stomach, a specialist can prescribe the drug Motilium. In order for the mucous membrane to heal, Solcloseryl is appropriate.
A therapeutic diet will help in the fight against gastritis. Performing it, you can quickly achieve effective results in the fight against the disease. Following the diet prescribed by the doctor, the treatment process is faster, the stomach lining is restored. If you eat incorrectly, the likelihood of a relapse of the disease increases significantly.
It is especially worthwhile to pay attention to adhering to the diet during exacerbations of the chronic form of gastritis resulting from stressful situations. The same applies to vitamin deficiency in spring and autumn - in these seasons the body is most weakened.
With increased acidity, the following foods should not be consumed:
- fatty dishes with lots of spices and oil - the same goes for salt and seasonings, garlic,
- products that provoke increased secretion of juice by the stomach - coffee and alcoholic beverages, legumes and sausages, cabbage and smoked products,
- all that negatively affects the lining of the stomach - fatty meat and radish, mushrooms,
- hot food - under the influence of high temperatures there is a negative effect on the inflamed membrane of the stomach.
With hyperacid gastritis, you can not eat:
- Pickles, spicy dishes.
- Baked or fried in butter, fatty dishes.
- Fatty meat, mushrooms.
With hyperacid gastritis, the following products should be selected:
- lean fish, meat,
- fruit jelly, mashed potatoes,
- low-fat dairy products,
- To restore acidity, Borjomi mineral water is useful - a glass half an hour before meals.
With reduced acidity in the case of gastritis, the following foods must be eaten:
- fermented milk - kefir and cheese, cottage cheese, milk,
- mashed potatoes - fruit and vegetable,
- fruit juices
- boiled or steamed chicken or rabbit, fish fillet.
With reduced acidity in the stomach, the following rules should be followed:
- Every day should be eaten at a certain time. It is important to create a menu and a nutrition schedule, dividing the diet into five meals.
- It is necessary to chew dishes carefully - when chewing a lot of gastric juice is produced, carefully chopped pieces of food do not injure the esophagus, as well as the gastric mucosa.
- You should eat slowly.
In order to get rid of stomach problems, you should adhere to important recommendations:
- Proper nutrition is needed.
- During treatment, it is necessary to take medications at the indicated dosages, according to the scheme prescribed by a specialist.
- It is important to drink plenty of fluids - mineral water is best.
- For treatment, you can use traditional medicine.
2 Symptoms of a chronic form
Symptoms of chronic gastritis can be very different and vary slightly depending on the type of problem. But at the same time, there are signs of chronic gastritis, which are found in absolutely all cases of the problem.
In the epigastric region, sufficiently strong painful sensations can occur, which are of concern in most cases on an empty stomach. They may have an acute cramping character or be quite weak and aching. In some patients with chronic gastritis, pain manifests itself immediately after eating.
In adults, there is frequent burping, tormenting heartburn, in some cases nausea and sometimes vomiting of the contents of the stomach and gastric juice.
The chronic form of gastritis, as a rule, is manifested by heaviness in the epigastric region after a person eats, there is a constant feeling of overeating and too full of a stomach, belching of food and air. In addition, a constantly unpleasant aftertaste is present in the mouth, there may be flatulence, stool becomes unstable, disappears or appetite is significantly reduced.
Some patients may very often experience vomiting or diarrhea.
The chronic form of gastritis, as a rule, is manifested by severity in the epigastric region after a person eats.
3 Diagnosis of gastritis
In order to be able to make an accurate diagnosis, a person must pass a lot of tests and undergo various kinds of examinations.
As a rule, in order to detect gastritis, it is desirable to do the following:
- Pass a general analysis of urine and blood, which will help determine the presence of an inflammatory process in the human body, which begins to develop in the chronic form of the disease. If gastritis is in remission, the tests will be normal. Then, these analyzes are checked for the presence of hyperchromic anemia, which develops quite actively in adults in the presence of a chronic form of autoimmune gastritis.
- It is very important to take a stool test to determine if there is hidden blood. In the event that the secretory function of the stomach is reduced, then specialists will find incompletely digested food debris.
- FGDS, then you need to take biopsy samples in order to conduct a histological study. If it is not possible to do FGDS, the doctor gives a referral for an X-ray examination of the stomach using barium for contrast. It is worth considering that this method is somewhat less effective than the determination of gastritis with x-rays.
- Then you need to conduct a thorough study of the secretory function of the stomach of a sick person.
- In order to determine the presence of a sufficiently dangerous microbe Helicobacter pylori in the body, a histological examination of biopsy samples can be used, during which pathogenic microflora of this type is colored in a different color. In addition, another type of diagnosis can be applied - to sow microorganisms from the patient’s stomach on a nutrient medium.
If there is a suspicion of a chronic form of gastritis of the stomach like reflux, then the person additionally rises pressure in the duodenum, which allows us to make a diagnosis.
In the case when, in addition to gastritis, other problems with the gastrointestinal tract can also be present (peptic ulcer of the stomach or duodenum, esophagitis, diaphragm hernia, the presence of various kinds of tumors), then specialists also conduct differential diagnostics.
In deciding the final diagnosis to a person, the results of FGDS play a very important role.
4 Antimicrobial therapy
Treatment of chronic gastritis, the development of which was provoked by the Helicobacter pylori microbe, involves the use of antimicrobial therapy. In this case, there are several treatment options that may include the following drugs:
- Be sure to use drugs that help solve problems with excessive secretion of hydrochloric acid by the stomach. It can be IPP: Omez, Emanera, Nolpaza, Pariet and others.
- It is customary to use drugs that contain bismuth: De-nol, Ventrisol.
How to treat chronic gastritis will be determined by a specialist based on the results.
In the treatment of chronic gastritis, the drug, Omez, is used.
As a rule, if there is no pathogen Helicobacter pylori or increased secretory function of the stomach in humans, then they use a slightly different technique and write out:
- Drugs that can lower the level of acidity in the stomach in a sick person: Almagel, Gelusil-varnish, Maalox, Phosphalugel and others.
- Medicines that can protect the gastric mucosa and envelop it with an additional protective film. It can be Sucralfate or bismuth dicitrate. At the same time, funds of this type are considered antimicrobial and quite effectively kill pathogenic microflora, especially Helicobacter pylori.
5 Reflux gastritis
In this case, all therapeutic measures are aimed at normalizing the motility of the stomach and bind all bile acids. A very important role in this regard is played by the correct diet, which consists in 5 meals a day, portions should be small. In addition, the diet should not be fried, spicy or fatty, because this will only aggravate the situation.
In order for the duodenal contents not to get into the stomach, experts prescribe Domperidone or Metoclopramide, which must be taken in small courses.
If there are serious enough problems with the heart or blood vessels, then it is better not to use these medicines because of the large number of serious side effects.
Ursosan is used when it is necessary to neutralize the harmful effects of bile acids.
Chenodeoxycholic acid, ursodeoxycholic acid or Ursosan is used when it is necessary to neutralize the harmful effects of bile acids. This should be done as quickly as possible, because there is severe damage to the gastric mucosa, which causes an increase in symptoms, and then chronic gastritis becomes much more difficult to treat.
If a sick person has low acidity, it is imperative to follow diet No. 2.
You can eat soups from vegetables and cereals, you need to boil them in fish, mushroom or meat broth, and then carefully grind. It is allowed to use low-fat varieties of meat and fish, which can be boiled, stewed, steamed. You can skim milk (if it does not cause diarrhea), kefir and cream, low-fat cottage cheese, butter. Boiled omelet or soft-boiled eggs, mashed or very boiled cereals are not prohibited. From flour, you can make crackers and stale white or gray bread. Salt should be no more than 12-15 grams per day.
It is advisable to take vitamin complexes.
You can eat soups from vegetables and cereals, you need to cook them with meat broth, then carefully grind.
Food should be 5 times a day, portions are small so as not to overload the stomach and digestive system. Almost all dishes should be used in the form of mashed potatoes, which will allow you to quickly restore the damaged stomach. Keep all food at room temperature. You can not eat very hot or cold, because it strengthens the symptoms and even harms the organs damaged by chronic gastritis.
7 Preventive measures
In order to avoid chronic gastritis and other problems with the gastrointestinal tract, it is very important to monitor your diet. Indeed, the prevention of many diseases of the stomach consists in observing nutritional rules and the absence of harmful products that can provoke the development of complications and damage to the mucous membranes of organs. In addition, it is very important to maintain your immunity so that it can with its own forces resist the pathogenic microflora that can enter the stomach. Do not forget about a healthy lifestyle, walks in the fresh air, healthy and quality nutrition. If you notice the first signs of gastritis, you should immediately consult a specialist. This will help to cure the disease at an early stage, and to prevent the appearance of its chronic form.
Chronic gastritis is a very serious disease that needs to be treated immediately after you feel the first signs of the disease. You should not delay a visit to a specialist, because the sooner you start treatment, the easier it will be to restore the damaged mucous membrane of the stomach, its functions and performance. In addition, symptoms and pain will not intensify and bring discomfort to a sick person.
It is important to remember that the chronic form of gastritis in the future can provoke the appearance of even more serious health problems, up to the development of cancer or even death. Therefore, about gastritis, symptoms and treatment, it is desirable to know every person. But if you suspect a disease, you should not self-medicate, because this can cause complications that will not be easy to eliminate.
Causes of gastritis
Violation of the acidity level of gastric juice is the basis of pathogenesis in the development of the inflammatory process of the stomach. Predisposing factors to a change in the pH of the gastric contents and the development of gastritis against this background are:
- abuse of spices, vinegar, fried and greasy foods,
- the predominance of fats and carbohydrates in the diet,
- poisoning by poor quality food,
- concomitant diseases of the gallbladder or pancreas, in which bile and acids are thrown into the stomach and irritate its mucous membranes,
- heavy metal salt poisoning,
- uncontrolled use of drugs that aggressively affect the gastric mucosa,
- accidental ingestion of chemicals - acids or alkalis,
- chronic stress
- hormonal imbalance in the body,
- alcohol abuse.
Short-term uncharacteristic effect of any factors on the digestive process leads to irritation of the mucous membranes of the stomach and the development of acute inflammation of the following nature:
- catarrhal - most often occurs against the background of malnutrition or food poisoning,
- fibrinous - develops as a result of poisoning with salts of heavy metals,
- necrotic - develops when acid or alkali enters the mucous membranes,
- phlegmonous - develops against a background of damage to the walls of the stomach, often occurs after partial resection of the stomach.
Untreated gastritis progresses rapidly, becomes chronic, complicated by peptic ulcer disease and tends to malignancy - degeneration into gastric cancer.
Symptoms of gastritis in adults
The main signs of inflammation of the gastric mucosa are:
- severity and pain in the epigastric region, aggravated after eating,
- nausea, vomiting,
- stool disorders - diarrhea or constipation.
Depending on the acidity level of the gastric juice, the clinical signs of mogt may vary slightly.
With gastritis with a high level of acidity, the patient has the following symptoms:
- prolonged pain in the epigastric region, aggravating on an empty stomach and subsiding after eating,
- belching sour,
Gastritis with a low level of acidity in a patient causes the following symptoms:
- bad taste in the mouth
- belching of a rotten egg
- stomach pain, worse after eating,
- constant rumbling in the stomach, heaviness after eating,
- constipation, flatulence,
- nausea and vomiting in the morning,
- bad breath, which is a sign of fermentation and rot in the stomach.
Acute gastritis with a normal level of acidity is characterized by the appearance of the following symptoms:
- persistent pain in the solar plexus, worse or worse after eating,
- heaviness in the stomach
- nausea, periodic vomiting,
- belching, hiccups, the appearance of a bitter and unpleasant aftertaste in the mouth,
- dizziness, headaches, weakness, palpitations,
- increased salivation,
- pain around the navel; tendency to constipation or diarrhea.
In the absence of adequate therapy, acute gastritis quickly turns into a chronic form of the course with frequent relapses of the disease. In chronic gastritis, recurrence is inherent in seasonality, as a rule, inflammation worsens in the fall and spring.
Chronic gastritis in an adult: clinical signs
In the phase of remission, the patient sometimes experiences discomfort and discomfort after eating - heartburn, heaviness, nausea, bloating, a feeling of fullness of the stomach. During an exacerbation of the disease, there are signs of acute gastritis. The insidiousness of the chronic inflammatory process is that with each exacerbation in the structure of the tissues of the stomach, destructive changes and scars form, which in the future can provoke the development of gastric bleeding.
Diagnosis of gastritis
If the described clinical symptoms appear, the patient is advised to consult a gastroenterologist. Differential diagnosis of gastritis from other inflammatory diseases of the digestive tract is carried out by the following methods:
- FGDS (fibrogastroduodenoscopy) - the study requires some preparation. A tube equipped with an optical system at the end is inserted through the patient’s mouth. The doctor can examine in detail the condition of the mucous membranes of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum. If necessary, it is possible to take biopsy material from pathological modified sites.
- pH-metry is a study that allows you to determine the acidity level of gastric juice.
- Blood tests for the determination of the Helicobacter bacteria,
- Ultrasound of the abdominal organs (pancreas, gall bladder, liver, spleen) - sometimes these symptoms can signal inflammation of the digestive tract, and not just the stomach.
Diet for gastritis
With exacerbation of gastritis, the patient is recommended table number 1. The following are excluded from the diet:
- coffee, strong black tea, chocolate, cocoa,
- pastry, pastries, cakes,
- goose duck
- pork, lamb,
- fatty fish (mackerel, herring, salmon, trout),
- sausages, canned food,
- spices, vinegar,
- barley, porridge, millet,
- fresh vegetables and fruits - tomatoes, onions, garlic, radishes, sour apples, cherries,
- rye bread and bran bread,
- fat sour cream, cream.
The diet consists of the following products:
- soups and borscht on vegetable broth,
- mashed potatoes with minimal oil (better than vegetable),
- jelly (berry, milk),
- porridge (buckwheat, rice, oatmeal),
- yesterday’s white bread
- candy, marshmallows, honey,
- poultry - chicken, turkey without skin and fat,
- beef, rabbit, lean pork without fat.
Medication for gastritis
With gastritis, the patient is shown complex treatment, which includes the following groups of drugs:
- proton pump blockers - Omez, Omeprazole, Ranitidine,
- antacids - Almagel, Fosfalugel, Gaviscon,
- astringent and enveloping - bismuth nitrate (Vis-Nol, De-nol).
In the differentiation of gastritis caused by the bacterium Helicobacter, a broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment course is prescribed along with Metronidazole according to a prescribed individual scheme.
Since gastritis is often accompanied by digestive disorders and malfunctions of the intestines, enzymatic preparations and probiotics are prescribed in parallel with the patient.
In order to avoid the development of gastritis, simple rules should be followed:
- to eat fully, preferably at the same time - categorically it is not recommended to skip meals,
- stop drinking alcohol and smoking,
- take medications only as prescribed by the doctor, strictly following the instructions and observing the dosage,
- chew slowly while eating, carefully chopping the pieces,
- treat carious teeth in a timely manner - tooth decay leads to insufficiently thorough grinding of food in the oral cavity, resulting in an increased risk of gastritis,
- limit the use of sausages, spices, vinegar, spicy and fried foods.
Important! If there are signs of gastritis, do not try to treat it yourself, since the treatment of various forms of the disease and acidity levels is radically different from each other. Self-medication often leads to chronicity of the pathological process and complications in the form of peptic ulcer and perforation of the organ.
Causes of the disease
The reasons for which chronic gastritis can occur can be divided into external and internal (exogenous and endogenous).
- the use of rough foods, marinades, hot spices, smoked meats, spices, as well as hot food and drinks. All this negatively affects the gastric mucosa and increases the synthesis of hydrochloric acid,
- prolonged uncontrolled use of drugs that have an irritating effect on the gastric mucosa (some antibiotics, sulfonamides, salicylates and others),
- irregular eating, the habit of eating “on the go” and “dry”,
- frequent drinking. Alcohol negatively affects the work of gastric mucus formation, reduces the ability of epithelial cells of the mucosa to recover, and provokes the occurrence of circulatory problems. A single intake of a large amount of alcohol can cause erosive gastritis,
- smoking on an empty stomach (nicotine spasm capillaries and tone vessels, and this leads to impaired blood circulation in the gastric tissues),
- work related to hazardous production.
- endocrine diseases (impaired corticosteroid production, hypothyroidism, diabetes mellitus),
- a failure in metabolic processes (lack of enzymes, gout, insulin resistance),
- chronic inflammation of the upper respiratory tract and lungs,
- pulmonary failure
- Immunity violation
- chronic pancreatitis, cirrhosis of the liver, hepatitis, which change the environment and injure the mucosa, also provoke the development of abnormalities of the gastric glands.
One of the main causes of the appearance of chronic gastritis is the presence in the body of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which is often present in the stomach or duodenum. This bacterium is found in 70-80% of adults. Every year the number of children with such a disease is increasing. The risk of developing gastritis is equally high in men and women.
In chronic gastritis, drugs are selected by the attending physician after a diagnosis, depending on the degree of damage and the type of inflammation.
Important! Prescribing medication yourself is forbidden: it will do more harm than good. Only a specialist will tell you how to cure chronic gastritis forever, or rather, how to translate this disease into a long-term remission.
Different groups of tools allow you to achieve certain goals:
- Substitution enzyme therapy for atrophic processes of the gastric mucosa: Festal, Panzinorm, Mezim, Pancreatin, Creon.
- Helicobacter bacteria are used to kill bacteria: antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Clarithromycin, Tetracycline) are used as anti-Helicobacter bacteria: Furazolidone, Metronidazole, bismuth preparations - De-Nol. The doctor prescribes drugs according to the scheme of the first and, in case of inefficiency, the second line, or complex preparations: Ornistat, Pilobact-neo, Klatinol, Pilobact.
- Normalization of gastric motility: Trimedat, Motilium.
- Decreased hydrochloric acid production: antisecretory drugs, anticholinergics: Ranitidine, Famotidine, Riabal, IPP: Omeprazole, Rabeprazole, Lansoprazole, Omez, antacids: Almagel-neo, Maalox, Fosfalugel.
- Increased production of hydrochloric acid: Pepsidil, Acidin, Abomin.
- With anemia accompanying gastritis with low acidity: vitamin B12, folic acid, iron preparations: Maltifer, Sorbifer.
- Cytoprotectors: Venter.
Each drug contains its specific contraindications, before use it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the instructions. Some components are allergens, and with individual intolerance and side effects, the doctor will choose another remedy.
The course of therapy is determined individually. It is important to drink the prescribed dosage in full. Unpleasant symptoms often disappear within 2-3 days after taking the medicine, but this does not mean that treatment can be stopped.
To achieve a stable remission, it is necessary to abandon bad habits: smoking, drinking alcohol, overeating.
Folk remedies for gastritis in adults
Recipes of traditional medicine give an effective result in the fight against gastritis.
- It is necessary to fill with water 100 grams of wheat grains. After the shoots appear, rinse and twist in a meat grinder. The resulting mass is diluted with several tablespoons of sunflower oil. You should consume the drug every day, on an empty stomach.
- For a quick recovery, you should create a therapeutic mixture, using as components one part of sea buckthorn oil and ten - ten percent propolis tincture. Twenty drops should be consumed, mixed with milk or mineral water. Three times a day will be enough.
- The hawthorn fruits should be steamed in the oven and consumed in a warm form with the remaining liquid.
- Prepare a decoction of the fruits of bird cherry. A tablespoon of dried fruit is poured with a glass of boiling water and boiled for a quarter of an hour. Then the mixture cools, it is added forty drops of a 10 percent propolis extract on alcohol. Take the product should be a glass 3 times a day.
Types of pathology
Chronic gastritis is divided into superficial and atrophic types. With the superficial type of gastritis, only the upper mucous layers are affected, in the vast majority of cases this type of disease is not accompanied by an abnormal transformation of the glands. With the atrophic form of the disease (it is considered more severe), the consequences are more severe - there is a thinning of the stomach wall, the number of glands decreases - all this leads to secretory insufficiency.
There is also a division of chronic gastritis in forms:
Symptoms of exacerbation of gastritis in adults
The chronic form of gastritis is rarely quite pronounced. Sometimes this form of the disease is accompanied by exacerbations. In this case, there are attacks of acute syndrome in the epigastric region, the condition is accompanied by signs of poisoning of the body:
- Severe headaches.
- Blood in the stool in the case of an erosive form of pathology.
Symptoms of acute gastritis in adults
In acute inflammation, the symptoms are quite bright. They are similar to signs of intestinal infection or intoxication of the body. Depending on the neglect of the process, as well as on which parts of the stomach are affected, the prognosis of the disease may be different. Most often, a person recovers quickly.
Acute gastritis can be determined by the following symptoms:
- In the left hypochondrium, pain is felt.
- The temperature rises.
- Asthenic syndrome.
Medication for atrophic gastritis
With increased secretory function, drugs are effective:
- Antacids - with their help it is possible to neutralize the acid in the stomach. Fosfalugel and Almagel are appropriate here. Also in the list should be added "Gaviscon".
- Analgesics - medicines stop pain. Here, "No-shpa" and "Gastrocepin" are appropriate. Almagel-A is also prescribed.
- Gastroprotectors - help restore the mucous surface. Assign "Solcoseryl".
- Anti-inflammatory drugs - enveloping the walls of the stomach helps relieve inflammation. The doctor prescribes Almagel and Maalox.
With low acidity, gastritis involves taking the same drugs. The exception is antacids. In addition, biological substitutes for stomach acid will help increase gastric secretion. We are talking about the drugs "Abomin" and "Pepidol." To improve the breakdown of the food mass, it is appropriate to take Mezim or Pancrumin. In order to prevent hypovitaminosis and anemia, multivitamin complexes are successfully used.
Treatment of erosive gastritis of the stomach
After examination, the doctor prescribes an effective radiation regimen. But there is a reference scheme by which you can quickly cope with the disease with erosive gastritis.
- First, in the presence of helicobacteria, it is necessary to destroy the pathogenic microflora. For this, antibiotics are prescribed.
- In the case of gastrointestinal reflux, when food that has oxidized is thrown into the esophagus, medications are prescribed that can restore motor activity in the stomach.
- Eliminating increased acidity becomes possible with the use of antacid non-absorbable effective drugs.
- Medicines that help to saturate with oxygen the tissues that were damaged as a result of the disease, help to cure erosion quickly.
- Drugs that include enzymes reduce the ability of the stomach to properly digest food.
- To protect the walls of the stomach, agents are prescribed that can significantly increase acidity. They restore the mucous membrane, which is very important for gastritis.
- They create in the stomach an acceptable, safe for the mucosa, microclimate preparations that reduce the release of hydrochloric acid.
Adhering to the doctor’s recommendations, eating the right food, without violating the treatment regimen, you can quickly get rid of such a disease as gastritis. It is important to start treatment as soon as possible. Therefore, noticing the symptoms that are described above, it is imperative to consult a doctor, and not wait until everything goes away by itself.
The diet is selected depending on the indicators of acidity - they can be increased or decreased.
With increased acidity, a therapeutic diet No. 1 is prescribed. Permitted:
- vegetarian soups of mucous consistency,
- vegetable and butter,
- chopped boiled vegetables,
- non-sour dairy products,
- sweet fruits, berries and juices,
- soft-boiled omelettes and eggs,
- lean meat and fish,
- stale bread, crackers.
For gastritis with low acidity, diet No. 2 is needed, which includes products that provoke additional production of stomach acid:
- meat and fish soups with cereals and vegetables,
- cereals (rice, semolina, buckwheat),
- boiled or stewed meat
- sour milk products
- any fruits, vegetables and juices,
- confectionery products.
It will be necessary to exclude from the diet everything fatty, fried and spicy - products that cause an excessive load on the digestive system. You need to refuse fast foods and snacks (chips, crackers, nuts), store juices, soda, and strong tea and coffee. Drinking alcohol and smoking are not allowed.
Recipes of traditional medicine are allowed to be used as adjuvants. The main treatment for chronic gastritis is through diet and medication.
After consultation with your doctor, you can use one of the following means:
- Potato juice: several medium tubers are thoroughly washed and immersed in a juicer or rubbed on a grater, after which the pulp is squeezed to separate the juice. Drink 50 ml half an hour before breakfast, the duration of the "course" is 10 days.
- Flaxseed infusion: 3 tbsp. l dry seeds need a liter of boiling water. The container is covered with a lid, wrapped in a warm towel. Insist the broth for 12 hours, strain and pour into a convenient container before use. Drink 100 ml before meals.
- Oat broth: 2 cups of cereal are crushed to a powder state, filled with 2 liters of warm water, mixed and infused for 12 hours. The resulting jelly is filtered, if necessary, salted and cooked until thickened over low heat. Drink 100 ml before meals, honey is added to improve the taste.
If you are hypersensitive to any of the ingredients, you should refuse to use the recipe and choose a different treatment method.
Can chronic gastritis be cured forever? Long-term stable remission is what doctors are talking about. And the sooner therapy begins, the more likely it is to prevent irreversible changes in the gastric mucosa. The diagnosis is not a sentence, but throughout his life the patient will have to monitor his diet and prevent exacerbations in time.