Achievements of modern pharmaceuticals cannot but rejoice. Those diseases that were considered fatal several hundred years ago are now successfully cured by the discovery of antibiotics. Penicillin was the first to be discovered, after which they began to produce semi-synthetic and synthetic antibiotics, each of which is effective against a specific type of bacteria. But everything has a flip side. During treatment, the beneficial intestinal microflora also dies. Therefore, diarrhea after antibiotics in children is not at all uncommon.
The main enemy of bacteria
Let's start with a quick tour. Consider what the drug group of antibiotics is and how these drugs work when they enter the body. Already on the basis of the name, it becomes clear that the action is directed against living cells that are foreign to our body. In other words, these are drugs whose action is directed against bacteria.
Its mechanism depends on the group to which they belong. Some destroy the cell membrane of bacteria, others neutralize them from the inside, and others do not allow sharing. But the result is always the same: the cell dies. Once in the digestive tract, the medicine is rapidly absorbed and enters the bloodstream.
Unfortunately, there is no difference for a drug whether bacteria in front of it are useful or harmful. Therefore, it goes to the natural inhabitants of our intestines. The result is diarrhea after antibiotics in children.
Causes of Diarrhea
But not so simple. After taking this group of drugs, various effects may develop, which as a result lead to severe diarrhea:
- Diarrhea after antibiotics in children can be caused by the action of antibiotics on intestinal motility. Almost all groups are distinguished by this. Erythromycin leads to the fact that the fluid passes through the digestive tract faster, Penicillin accelerates intestinal blood flow. But the result will be the same: water does not have time to be absorbed and liquefies stool. It should be noted that this effect is rarely observed on its own, without the influence of other factors.
- Diarrhea after antibiotics in children may be associated with dysbiosis. This is a massive death of bacteria on the background of taking the drug. The latter does not know how to distinguish "friends" from "strangers." This phenomenon has two consequences. This is a digestive disorder and infection by pathogenic bacteria, that is, the population of pathogenic microflora in the free space.
- Pseudomembrane colitis. The reason for its appearance is a pathogenic bacterium. While the immunity is strong, he will not allow its reproduction. But while taking antibiotics, it weakens. The result is bacterial growth and the development of colitis, the main symptom of which is diarrhea.
- Resistance of pathogenic bacteria to therapy. That is, diarrhea is a symptom of a disease that continues to progress.
- Allergic reaction.
If the temperature rises during the treatment of the child, vomiting occurs, it means that you are treating something wrong or you have chosen the wrong scheme. You must immediately consult a doctor, undergo an examination to pick up other drugs. But this is a topic for another conversation. Let's get back to the case when a child has diarrhea after antibiotics. What should parents do in this situation?
We evaluate the condition
It will not be superfluous to recall that any medicines should be prescribed by a doctor. Their reception should be reasonable and really necessary. If a child begins diarrhea a few days after the start of treatment, then do not panic. Watch your baby throughout the day:
- If diarrhea occurs rarely, up to 4 times a day and does not deplete the body, then you can give Smect and do not take any further measures.
- If diarrhea is frequent and debilitating, then you need to restore fluid balance in the body. Great for this is Regidron. The main task of parents is to prevent dehydration.
Many immediately begin to call the ambulance and ask: "What to do?" After antibiotics, a child may have mild or very severe diarrhea. In the second case, the baby becomes apathetic, after the toilet he immediately goes to bed. Abdominal pain may bother you. In such a situation, an ambulance crew will be sent to you.
When is medical assistance needed?
Parents have two extremes. Some call the doctor at the first minor changes in the condition of the child. Others, on the contrary, are drawn to the last, hoping that everything will go away by itself. Of course, you need to look for a middle ground. Diarrhea and temperature in a child after antibiotics is already too much. So, against the background of oppressed immunity, his body was struck by another infection. It is required to call a doctor if your baby is not yet 1 year old and defecation occurs at least five times a day, and the following symptoms also join:
- In addition to diarrhea, nausea and vomiting occur.
- The baby has severe dehydration. He constantly sleeps, does not respond to irritants.
- If diarrhea develops almost immediately after the start of taking antibiotics, within a few hours.
- If diarrhea contains blotches of red or green.
- Against the background of diarrhea, the temperature rises.
Green diarrhea after antibiotics in children is not uncommon. If the general condition of the baby is normal, then you can ask this question during the next consultation with the pediatrician.
If diarrhea after treatment occurs in an adult, then this does not cause much concern. Someone begins to drink fermented milk drinks intensely, others even wait until the condition normalizes on their own. But if diarrhea is after a course of antibiotics in a child, then parents try to take measures to normalize the digestive tract as quickly as possible. This is justified, because in babies the body weight is much less and dehydration can develop just lightning fast.
That is, treatment of diarrhea in a child after antibiotics begins with the fact that the water-salt balance in the body is normalized. There are many popular methods for this, but if the child is small, then it is better to resort to drug therapy. There are two groups of drugs that can help you with this:
- Means for normalizing the water balance. These are "Oralit", "Hydrovit", "Regidron", "Humana electrolyte".
- Means for thickening feces. These are the well-known Smecta, Lactofiltrum, Enterosgel and many others.
- Probiotics are sources of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli.
Choosing how to treat diarrhea in a child after antibiotics, consult a doctor for a start. For example, Smecta is a sorbent. On the one hand, it binds toxins. On the other hand, it neutralizes the body’s attempt to remove what poisons it. Therefore, if the cause is eliminated, then it will be beneficial. Otherwise, it will only complicate the situation.
Antibiotics for treating diarrhea
It is amazing how firmly the habit of treating diarrhea with chloramphenicol has established itself in our society. It is given even to children, despite the fact that the drug is not adapted for childhood. But this is not even surprising. If the child has diarrhea after taking antibiotics, it means that the microflora is seriously affected. It needs to be restored and in parallel to normalize the digestive processes. Instead, the child is prescribed an additional dose of antibiotics. What is it? Diarrhea is likely to worsen. In any case, the baby will be tormented by stomach discomfort for a long time.
Drugs are half the battle. If a child has diarrhea with mucus after antibiotics, it means that the intestines are seriously affected by the infection, and the therapy affected him not in the best way. The baby's diet should now contain foods that will help cope with the disease. Dietary nutrition is prevention and treatment assistance, it must continue after the treatment course is completed. This usually takes one to three weeks, depending on the therapeutic regimen applied. The gastrointestinal tract must fully recover, otherwise any load will lead to disturbances in its work.
Under the age of 12 months
Diet for infants will be different from what is recommended for older children. If the baby is breastfed, then there will be no major changes in his diet. Only if there is vomiting, the doctor may recommend replacing breast milk with Regidron solution for a day. But as soon as vomiting stops, you need to resume feeding.
Linex solution is also given for diarrhea. It is important not to overdose it, since a high concentration of salts in the body is also useless. It is recommended to give one spoon every 10 minutes. If the baby is on artificial feeding, then he is given a solution of "Regidron" before each feeding. If diarrhea does not go away in 1-2 days or has a severe course, then the child is placed in a hospital.
Older than one year
By this age, kids receive a varied diet, so parents will have to think carefully about what needs to be excluded. A well-balanced diet allows you to normalize the activity of the intestine in just a few days. If a child after antibiotics has diarrhea and vomiting, then you need to give him "Regidron" 20 tablespoons for one hour. Be sure to use "Linex" or a similar drug.
What you need to exclude from the diet
After taking antibiotics, it is recommended to temporarily exclude citrus fruits and other fruits. Raw vegetables will not be the best choice, their heat treatment is necessary. This list also has meat products and pasta, all fatty and fried, cakes and ice cream. On the table, the child should not see carbonated drinks, smoked meats, spicy and spicy foods, any milk and sour milk.
Compliance with these rules is very important. Often, parents themselves are to blame for the fact that the condition of the child is getting worse. As soon as the baby begins to eat, they buy fruits, yoghurts, sausages and other harmful goodies.
What is recommended to eat
Diet is not always fun, but now it is absolutely necessary. It is very useful to use boiled rice and a decoction of this cereal. Banana puree can be added to the diet; this fruit helps to normalize the activity of the gastrointestinal tract. The next day, you can try a little applesauce. Dryers, bagels and crackers brighten the diet. Children love them very much. The basis of the diet can be broths and baked potatoes. It is very useful to prepare for the child jelly, infusion of St. John's wort, blueberries, raisins, dill. The diet is gradually expanding as the condition of the child normalizes. The products that are listed in the banned list are best left in the end when you are already completely sure that the problem has passed.
If antibiotics cannot be dispensed with, then measures must be taken to ensure that treatment goes without consequences. To do this, follow the recommendations that will help to avoid negative consequences:
- You can not take an antibiotic on an empty stomach. Often children have no appetite during the illness, in this case you need to give a little light food. If they completely refuse, doctors recommend feeding a piece of butter.
- During treatment, you need to adhere to a certain diet. The above scheme with recommended and prohibited products is fully consistent with it.
Instead of a conclusion
Antibiotics are not vitamins. They should be prescribed only by a competent and experienced doctor. Such treatment necessarily requires compliance with a number of rules in order to cause a minimum of harm to the children's body. In particular, you must follow a diet and take medications that help restore intestinal microflora. In this case, the treatment will take place without any special consequences. Diarrhea and vomiting after antibiotic therapy can be caused by various factors. If after the end of the course a few days have passed, then it is worth looking for a different reason than banal dysbiosis.
Causes of diarrhea after taking antibiotics
When taking antibiotics, diarrhea is a fairly expected side effect. In children, it can occur for the following reasons:
- The muscles of the stomach and intestines begin to contract more often and work faster. As a result, intestinal absorption is impaired, and feces become fluid.
- Dysbacteriosis appears as a result of the destruction of beneficial bacteria that are always in the stomach and intestines. This is the most common cause of diarrhea after taking the medication.
- Pseudomembranous colitis. In the human body there are always beneficial and "harmful" bacteria. After taking antibiotics, their balance is disturbed, and pathogens lead to the development of this intestinal inflammatory infection.
- Allergy to the drug. In this case, diarrhea is accompanied by other manifestations of an allergic reaction: vomiting, nausea, skin rash, itching.
Symptoms of a negative reaction to antibiotics
Diarrhea after antibiotics in a child can have a different degree of severity: mild, moderate and severe, and fulminant form.
With a mild to moderate form, the following symptoms are observed:
- general weakness and malaise,
- vomiting and nausea
- cramping and abdominal pain
- temperature increase
- impurities of blood and mucus in the stool,
- loose stools alternate with normal.
In severe forms of diarrhea in a child after antibiotics, hospitalization and treatment in a hospital institution are required. Signs of a severe form of the condition:
- defecation occurs more often 10 times during the day,
- worried about abdominal pain
- feces have mucus impurities, white lumps are present in the structure,
- body temperature is increased (up to 40 degrees).
Treatment and diet for diarrhea
Often a child has loose stools after taking antibiotics. When this problem occurs in adults, many do not think about how to treat and get rid of this condition. Moreover, for the majority it passes quickly. However, when diarrhea from antibiotics appears in a child, the question arises - what to do? In this condition, treatment is necessary, since dehydration (dehydration) can occur in children due to diarrhea. Against this background, the likelihood of various complications is high.
Dr. Komarovsky says that restoring water balance is a priority, not only when a child has diarrhea from antibiotics, but also with infectious diseases.
Means for normalizing the water balance (rehydration solutions):
- Humana's Electrolyte.
Means for thickening feces:
Antibiotics should not be given for diarrhea in children that has been caused by similar drugs. Many do not know, but Levomycetinum is an antibiotic.
In addition to taking diarrhea medicines for children, it is recommended that the child’s diet contain certain foods that will help him cope with the disease. Dietary nutrition should be used not only when the question arises of how to treat diarrhea, but also as a preventive method. After taking antibiotics, and after getting rid of diarrhea, you need to adhere to a certain type of food for some time until the child’s gastrointestinal tract is completely restored.
The diet of children under 12 months of age will be different from the diet of older children.If the baby is breast-fed, then he should receive the usual nutrition for him in full. To get rid of diarrhea, in the intervals between feedings, you need to give your child special oral rehydration solutions. It is important not to give too much of such a remedy. Within one hour, you can give no more than 6 teaspoons, giving 1 one spoon every 10 minutes.
Children who receive artificial feeding should be given rehydration solutions 5-6 hours before feeding. Under the age of 6 months, it is advisable not to use solutions.
If diarrhea does not go away after 1-2 days, and if the condition has a severe course, treatment should be carried out in a hospital facility. Only there are the necessary conditions for providing quick and effective assistance in full.
Children older than one year have a more varied diet. They also need to be given special oral rehydration solutions. At this age, the child can already drink a larger amount of this remedy. If there is a feeling of nausea and the likelihood of vomiting, then you need to give no more than 10-20 teaspoons of the solution within one hour, taking breaks of 10 minutes between doses. Dr. Komarovsky recommends paying special attention to diet and diet for the treatment of diarrhea from antibiotics that a child has.
Products that are recommended to be excluded from the diet for diarrhea after taking antibiotics:
- citrus fruits and other fruits,
- raw vegetables (heat treatment required),
- meat products,
- high fat foods
- carbonated drinks,
- smoked meats
- spicy and spicy food
- flour products
- confectionery, sweets,
- dairy products (including fermented milk).
Foods and dishes that can alleviate the condition:
- boiled rice, rice broth,
- fruit puree (apple, banana),
- drying, bagels, crackers,
- fruit decoctions,
- infusions of hypericum, blueberries, wormwood, dill,
- baked potato.
Treatment and prevention of diarrhea
Treatment of diarrhea of any etiology, it began after antibiotics or for another reason, you need to start as early as possible to avoid dehydration - in children this process occurs many times faster than in adults, so you can not hesitate.
Treatment will be carried out in two main directions:
- Restore the microflora of the child.
- Prevent dehydration.
A little patient needs a completely special regimen, and how quickly he will recover will depend only on the patience of the parents and proper care.
To restore microflora, pharmacies offer a variety of drugs containing prebiotics and probiotics. It is they who are needed by the baby so that his intestines again begin to function normally.
The following drugs are most popular and effective:
They do not act immediately: bifidobacteria and lactobacilli will colonize the intestine gradually. At this time, the baby needs a special diet, and here you need to be patient and not give in to the whims of the child. Although, as a rule, children in this state do not differ in excessive appetite and do not require treats.
Exclude from the diet you need:
- any dairy and sour milk products,
- raw fruits and vegetables
- meat and fish
- any juices and soda,
Viscous rice, mashed potatoes in water without oil, crackers, sweet black tea, baked apples, bananas are allowed. As the child’s condition improves, you can add mashed vegetable soups, boiled twisted meat, boiled egg to the menu.
It is better to tolerate: you can feed the baby with goodies later, when he fully stands on his feet.
Important to remember
Eating a baby during treatment of diarrhea should be frequent, but in small portions. Drinking regimen must be observed to avoid dehydration.
- dried fruits compote,
- infusion of raisins and dried apricots (but the child does not need to give dried fruits)
- various jelly.
If diarrhea is very strong, while the temperature rises and the child weakens significantly, you should resort to pharmacy means: Electrolyte or Regidron will help. You need to drink the baby every 10-15 minutes in small portions to avoid vomiting.
If parents did everything right, then diarrhea will stop in 5-7 days. But this does not mean that the treatment is over. Probiotics or preniotics will have to be taken for at least another two weeks, adhere to a sparing diet for at least 10 days. And after this, care must be taken to strengthen the child’s immunity and prevent recurrence of an infectious disease or diarrhea.
If a child begins diarrhea after antibiotic therapy, the first thing to do is to report an unpleasant symptom to a doctor. He will determine for sure whether the reason is really in the medicine, and afterwards he will tell what needs to be done in order to restore the child’s well-being as soon as possible. In this case, treating a child yourself is extremely irresponsible and dangerous.
How are antibiotics and the work of the digestive tract in a child
It is important to remember that only a doctor should prescribe antibiotics to a child. In no case can you do this yourself, without first passing tests and conducting an examination.
Any antibiotics, except the expected help in eliminating harmful bacteria, have a harmful effect on beneficial microorganisms. First of all, when using antibiotics, it is the intestinal microflora that is destroyed, the destruction of which leads to the appearance of an indigestion, expressed in diarrhea and active gas formation. Often, nausea with bouts of vomiting is added to these symptoms.
To treat diseases in a child with the help of such serious drugs should only be in extreme cases, when there is no other way out and way to help the baby. For example, in cases where it is impossible to cure the disease without the use of antibiotics, since it cannot be treated with other means and poses a threat to the life of the child.
The cause of diarrhea after taking antibiotics in children and infants
The use of antibiotics in the treatment of diseases in a child can lead to diarrhea and other signs of an indigestion. Such reactions are called side effects, and they can occur in adults, but in children such phenomena due to immaturity and weakening of the body are always more pronounced.
In most cases, diarrhea after antibiotics in a child appears for the following reasons:
- Under the influence of the taken antibiotics, the child accelerates the work of the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, and this primarily affects the intestines. As a result, the absorption function is disturbed and loose stools occur. In this case, diarrhea is rarely accompanied by bloating, pain or fever, and a few days after taking the antibiotic, the side effects disappear on their own, without requiring treatment.
- Quite often, against the background of a child taking antibiotics, dysbiosis occurs, which is an imbalance in the intestinal microflora, since together with pathogenic microorganisms, such drugs also kill useful bacteria necessary for normal digestion. In this case, after discontinuation of the drug, it is recommended to give the child live yogurts with lactobacilli and bifidobacteria or specialized mixtures containing probiotics and prebiotics.
- If the antibiotic that causes diarrhea is treated for a long time, an inflammatory bowel infection called pseudomembranous colitis may result. This disease occurs against the background of a long-lasting violation of the correct balance of the intestinal microflora, as a result of which the body ceases to resist pathogenic microorganisms and cannot inhibit their growth. In most cases, in a similar situation, the active development of clostridium fungi begins.
What to do with diarrhea after antibiotics in children
The appearance of diarrhea during antibiotic treatment is always a sign of an intestinal disorder. In children, this condition is usually accompanied by a number of symptoms, in particular:
- Flatulence and severe bloating,
- Nausea and often vomiting
- Temperature rise
- The appearance of spastic pain
- Significant deterioration in well-being,
- A change in stool, it can be normal, fluid or too thick, and such conditions can alternate.
If diarrhea is caused by taking antibiotics, then its course can take several forms:
- Light form. In this case, the diarrhea manifests itself in the child no more than 5 times a day and the baby does not feel any particular discomfort. Slight pain at the time of defecation may occur, which usually disappears immediately after it has ended.
- Middle form. In this case, the number of bowel movements can reach 15 times a day. The kid complains of severe abdominal pain, which is aggravated by palpation. The abdomen of the child is greatly swollen, body temperature is elevated. In the feces, you can observe the presence of blood and mucus, which indicates an inflammatory process that occurs in the intestine.
- Heavy form. In this case, the number of bowel movements can reach 30 times, which leads to rapid dehydration of the body.
- Lightning fast form. This category of ailment is assigned in the case when the development of all symptoms occurs rapidly, while severe pain is noted in the abdomen.
It is important to consider that frequent bowel movements lead to rapid dehydration of the child's body, which can be very dangerous. To prevent serious consequences, it is necessary to provide the child with enough drinking.
What to do if a child has diarrhea while taking antibiotics: it is also necessary to give him probiotics and prebiotics, which will even out the balance of beneficial microflora in the intestines, which is necessary for normal digestion and the digestive system.
These same drugs help to suppress the development of pathogenic microorganisms. Such funds include BififormBaby, Biosporin, Linex, Bifidumbacterin, Latsidofil, Hilak-forte, Enterol.
But to give such drugs to the baby is possible only after their appointment by a doctor and with an accurate determination of the dosage. If the use of these drugs at the same time as antibiotic treatment does not bring the desired result and the diarrhea continues in the baby, then the main drug (antibiotic) should be discontinued and replaced with another.
What to do with diarrhea in infants
If diarrhea while taking an antibiotic in a baby lasts several days, while it begins to weaken and lose weight, this indicates the appearance of dehydration and a decrease in the amount of mineral salts needed in the body.
You should also give a pharmaceutical solution of Regidron, designed specifically to make up for fluid loss in the body. It is necessary to consult a doctor so that he examines the baby and prescribes additional treatment, or maybe replaces the recommended antibiotic with another drug.
If the baby is breastfeeding, then with the appearance of diarrhea, mother needs to exclude from his diet all foods that can worsen the condition of crumbs and increase diarrhea.
During artificial feeding, all complementary foods should be temporarily canceled., since many vegetables and fruits can significantly worsen the situation.
Nutrition and diet for diarrhea
It is very important that the child with diarrhea receive a sufficient amount of liquid, but this should be pure still or mineral water, and not juices, milk or a variety of carbonated drinks. Besides, the child is recommended to give weak and non-greasy broths (best chicken), natural (not canned) compotes, for example, from dried fruits, fresh jelly, green tea, mineral water (best of Essentuki No. 4 and 16).
In the first day at the onset of diarrhea, you can replace all food with broth and jelly. If there is no vomiting, then on the second day you can give your child baked potatoes or boiled rice, you can also give rice broth to drink.
With diarrhea from the whole variety of fruits, it is recommended to give the baby only puree from bananas and apples.
Crackers are considered an excellent fixing agent.. But we are not talking about “Kirieshki” and other similar products that can cause irreparable harm to the child’s body. To prepare healthy crackers, you should take a fresh white loaf or bran bread, cut it into pieces and dry them in the oven on a clean and dry sheet.
After the child’s condition improves markedly, it is necessary to add fresh sour-milk products to his diet, the use of which will normalize the intestinal microflora and normalize the digestive system.
You can cook a good and healthy sour-milk product yourself, for this it is necessary to take milk, warm it to a temperature of 40 degrees and squeeze a spoonful of sour cream or store sourdough. For fermentation, you can use live yogurt, for example, Actimel or Immunele. The container with the mixture should be put in a warm place for 8 hours.
An important point of nutrition in case of diarrhea is that food must be ingested frequently, but in small quantities. At the same time, dishes and products that cause active gas production in the intestine and enhance the functioning of this organ should be excluded.
Alternative methods of treatment
As additional measures to eliminate diarrhea from taking antibiotics in children, some alternative methods can be used, but they can only be used with the permission of a doctor.
To get rid of diarrhea, you can give your child one or more folk remedies:
- Hypericum herb infusion. To prepare it, you should take 10 grams of dry leaves of the plant and pour them with a liter of boiling water and leave for 30 minutes to infuse, then strain. It is necessary to give infusion to children three times a day, 50 ml each.
- A decoction or infusion of blueberries. For cooking, take 2 tablespoons of dried blueberries and pour them with a glass of boiling water. After that, the mixture can be left to infuse for 2 hours or boil for 10 minutes over low heat. Giving this remedy to the child is necessary 5 times a day for a teaspoon.
- Take 2 cups of boiling water and brew 1 teaspoon of wormwood in them, leave the mixture to infuse for 20 minutes. Such infusion is given to a child 4 times a day, 50 ml each.
- Also in 2 glasses of boiling water, you can brew and 3 tablespoons of dried dill seeds. To give a child such an infusion several times a day, 100 ml each.
- It helps to eliminate diarrhea and cold infusion of chamomile, for the preparation of which it is necessary to take 2 cups of cold boiled water, pour 10 teaspoons of flowers of medicinal chamomile there. The mixture should be infused for 8 hours. Such infusion can be given to a child 4 times a day before meals, 1 teaspoon each.
Young children often get sick due to an insufficiently formed immune system. Severe bacterial infections cannot be cured without antibiotics. The children's body often reacts unpredictably to the drug, and loose stools occur. This is due to the action of antibiotics: they are designed to inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria. However, not all drugs act selectively, in addition to pathogenic microorganisms, useful and necessary for the normal functioning of the intestine die.
Drugs affect the intestinal microflora and the body as a whole in different ways, so you need to select drugs based on age and disease.There are five main groups of antibacterial drugs:
- Penicillins. These substances were one of the first to be discovered. These are broad-spectrum antibiotics (Amoxicillin, Penicillin, Amoxiclav). For children, they are considered relatively safe, but can cause a severe allergic reaction.
- Cephalosporins. In structure, these substances are similar to penicillins. They have a wide spectrum of action, are available in various forms: tablets, suspensions, solutions for injection. Cephalosporins often cause side effects associated with intestinal function. These include ceftriaxone, cefomandol.
- Tetracyclines. The most famous group of antibiotics (Tetracycline, Doxycycline). They are considered relatively safe, but with prolonged and uncontrolled intake lead to serious consequences.
- Macrolides. They have a more complex structure (erythromycin, azithromycin). They have a wide spectrum of action, while side effects are minimized. Macrolides are often given to young children. You can take them in long courses if necessary.
- Fluoroquinolones. This group includes ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin. The drugs are used to treat infections of the respiratory and urinary tract, intestines. However, drugs of this group are highly toxic, so children are prescribed infrequently.
Any drug can provoke diarrhea from antibiotics in a child, but in some side effects are more pronounced. Only a pediatrician should select a remedy.
Antibiotic-associated diarrhea: causes and features
Taking antibacterial tablets may be accompanied by unpleasant phenomena, such as nausea, loose stools, and abdominal pain. Antibiotics are aggressive towards the digestive system, but refusing treatment is not practical: a bacterial infection is more dangerous for a child than diarrhea.
Stool disorders can be observed from the first day of treatment. In this case, 4 common causes of this condition are distinguished:
- Dysbacteriosis As mentioned above, a broad-spectrum antibiotic affects all bacteria in the intestine: pathogenic and beneficial. Reducing the number of the latter leads to disruption of the colon. The stool becomes more fluid and frequent.
- Pseudomembranous colitis. This disease is rare and is the most serious complication of antibiotic therapy. It can lead to intestinal perforation. The stool is fluid and frequent, with greens and undigested pieces of food. This complication can be met in young children under 5 years old.
- Disorders of the stomach. When taking antibiotics in the form of tablets, the mucous membrane of this organ inevitably suffers. Smooth muscles and intestines begin to contract more actively, which leads to loose stools. In this case, diarrhea appears from the first day of taking the drug, but is not accompanied by an increase in temperature.
- Individual intolerance to the prescribed medication. Diarrhea provokes intolerance or an allergic reaction to one of the components of the drug. In addition to loose stools, fever and a rash appear on the body.
Drug diarrhea is not considered safe. It can cause serious harm to the child, so treatment is necessary.
Diarrhea occurs in different ways. If the baby has plentiful watery stools more than 5 times a day, you should consult a doctor. Also alarming symptoms requiring medical attention are fever and blood in the stool.
Serious side effects are often caused by penicillin-type antibiotics. They provoke diarrhea in 15-20% of cases. Macrolides are less toxic and cause diarrhea in only 5%.
Diagnosis and treatment
Determine the cause will help collecting anamnesis, analysis of feces and blood. As a rule, a long examination is not required. The doctor can determine the root cause of diarrhea by finding out which drug is being taken and what are the symptoms.
Treatment is selected symptomatic. It helps to alleviate the condition of the child if it is impossible to cancel the antibiotic. Often, complications associated with taking antibacterial drugs occur due to the duration of the course, for example, with pneumonia or tuberculosis. In this case, the treatment of intestinal dysfunction is complicated by the serious condition of the baby.
The pediatrician will tell you in detail what to do if the child has diarrhea from antibiotics. Safe treatment of diarrhea in children includes:
- Rehydration solutions. If you have loose stools, you need to drink more water, but special solutions are more effective (Regidron). They allow you to replenish not only liquid, but also salts. It is necessary to carefully read the instructions and observe the dosage in accordance with the weight and age of the child. With a weak concentration, there will be no benefit, and with a strong concentration, vomiting will appear.
- Enterosorbents. These are drugs that absorb and remove toxic substances from the body without being absorbed into the intestinal wall. These include Enterosgel, Smecta, activated carbon. It is worth considering that they have age restrictions. While taking antibiotics, they are prescribed with caution, since these drugs remove not only toxins, but also the medicine, preventing it from being absorbed.
- Probiotics Before treating a child with probiotics, you need to make sure that the drug is selected correctly. Some of them can increase diarrhea. Doctors often prescribe Linex, Acepol, Bifiform, Bifidumbacterin, Enterol.
Mom wonders if diarrhea can be a normal condition that does not require treatment. Liquid stool 2-3 times a day without severe pain and greenery, nausea and fever, pediatricians do not recommend treatment. Enough probiotics and adherence to nutritional rules. Diarrhea will pass on its own after the end of the curase therapy and will not lead to serious consequences for the body.
Food and folk remedies
Moms often worry about what to do if the baby has diarrhea after antibiotics. Doctors say that medication is not always required. Herbal remedies and diet will help normalize the intestines and restore microflora.
Alternative recipes can cause allergies, so before using them you need to consult a pediatrician. Among safe natural remedies are called:
- St. John's wort. It relieves inflammation and helps restore intestinal microflora. To prepare the medicine, you need to pour a spoonful of grass with boiling water and let it brew. Then the broth is cooled and watered by the child instead of tea.
- Dill. It helps to expel gases and stop the loss of fluid in case of diarrhea. Dill seeds need to be poured with boiling water, let it brew under the lid. The infusion should be judged and given to the child in small doses throughout the day.
- Asparagus. It is a prebiotic, maintains the state of intestinal microflora and normalizes its work. A child from 2 years old can be given a piece of washed and peeled asparagus to chew.
- Garlic. A useful tool to increase immunity and restore intestinal microflora. Children do not like garlic, so they chop it, hide it in a crumb of bread and ask the baby to swallow it whole without chewing.
Diet needs to be selected depending on age. If he is on artificial feeding, a special mixture with probiotics (sour milk) is selected. It is enough for the baby to give water and feed as usual.
Older children should not be given fatty meat, fried, sour fruits and berries, sweets, pickles. These products increase the load on the stomach, increase intestinal motility and cause in fermentation processes.
You can not feed the child by force. If he refuses food, he should not be forced to.
Easy and healthy snack will be yogurt or fermented baked milk, kefir. Dairy products are quite nutritious and contain lactobacilli, that is, they are natural probiotics. It is not recommended to give fatty cottage cheese and yoghurts with dyes and flavors.
Children can be given cereal. They are good for digestion and fasten stools. Rice porridge is especially useful in this regard.
Rules for taking antibiotics
Many mothers ask how to treat a child in order to avoid dysbiosis. The doctor will choose the best option and the safest drug. But even in this case, the reaction of the body is unpredictable. To avoid the appearance of dysbiosis, the rules for taking antibacterial drugs will help:
- The dosage and duration of the course of therapy is determined only by the doctor. Some drugs are taken once a day, others - 3. It is not necessary to independently change the multiplicity and dosage, this can disrupt the treatment process and worsen the situation.
- It is advisable to give the child medicine after meals. Antibiotic on an empty stomach An antibiotic will irritate it and will cause nausea.
- The drug must be given at the same time. This will maintain the concentration of the drug in the blood at the right level.
- Antibiotics are taken orally. Injections should be done if the child has vomiting or has serious contraindications for taking the tablets.
- For infants, tablets are given in pureed form. Most drugs are available in suspension.
- The course prescribed by the doctor must be completed. Early withdrawal of the drug will lead to the development of immunity in the pathogen. The disease will return, but the medicine will have to be selected differently, to start the course anew, which will worsen the state of the digestive system.
- The drug in suspension must be accurately dosed. They are sold with measuring spoons or syringes. The child should swallow the prescribed dose whole.
- You need to drink a tablet with clean water without gas. It is not recommended to drink antibiotics with milk, yogurt or fruit juice.
The effectiveness of treatment depends not only on the drug, but also on compliance with the recommendations of the doctor. Parents must follow the instructions of the pediatrician and monitor the condition of the child. If it worsens, diarrhea intensifies and there are no signs of improvement, it is necessary to choose another treatment.
Parents are advised to write down the name of the medicine, in which disease and for how long it was taken. In the future, this information may come in handy.
When is antibiotic use not justified?
Any antibacterial drug is toxic. Antibiotics are prescribed only in cases of emergency, when the infection is dangerous and harms the body. In the case of children, they need to be selected very carefully. Previously, it is necessary to conduct bacteriological seeding and determine to which specific drug the microorganism is sensitive.
Frequent use of antibiotics reduces their effectiveness. There are a number of cases when antibacterial drugs are not needed:
- Cold. Viral diseases are not treated with antibiotics. They are powerless in the fight against viruses. Such non-therapy will not only not have an effect, but will also harm the child's body. Immunity will weaken, various complications will appear. Antiviral drugs have been developed to treat such infections.
- Prevention In order to prevent infection, antibiotics are prescribed only after surgery. It is impossible to protect yourself from colds and flu in this way. These drugs are prescribed to treat or eliminate complications of infections, but antibiotic prophylaxis will not help without serious indications. They will only reduce the immunity of the child and make the bacteria insensitive to the drug.
- Fungal diseases. Antifungal drugs exist for the treatment of such diseases. They act selectively and sparingly. Antibiotics in this case will not help to cope with the problem, but will exacerbate the course of the infection.
- Allergy. Antibiotics themselves can cause a reaction and they are not intended to treat allergies. An allergic reaction is caused by the malfunctioning of the immune system, its sensitivity. It is only stopped by antihistamines.
- Symptomatic treatment The drugs are aimed at eliminating the cause of the disease - bacteria. They do not relieve the symptoms of colds and flu: cough, snot, nasal congestion.
The use of antibiotics is justified for chronic infections, for example, cystitis, in the acute course of bacterial infection, otitis media, streptococcal tonsillitis, etc. The action begins 48–72 hours after administration. If there is no improvement on the third day, you need to change the treatment regimen.
The consequences of taking antibiotics
The most common complication after taking these drugs is diarrhea in a child. Often it is caused by a violation in the digestive system, such as dysbiosis. This process is characterized by an imbalance in the intestinal bacteria. It appears due to the fact that drugs of this action eliminate not only pathogenic microorganisms, but also the beneficial microflora, which is required for the normal functioning of the body.
Signs of such a disease appear in the first days after taking antibiotics or some time after treatment with them. This violation is accompanied by the following symptoms:
- sleep disturbances
- pain in the stomach or intestines,
- lethargy, moodiness,
- decreased or complete lack of appetite,
- frequent bloating, increased gas formation.
The specifics of the stool in children
This condition is a violation of the normal functioning of the digestive tract, which manifests itself in an increase in the number of bowel movements. In this case, the consistency of feces changes, they become diluted, may contain pathological impurities. To find out if this is diarrhea or a normal condition, you can use the assessment of the last stool and normal indicators. As for adults, such indicators do not change, and in a child they vary depending on age. But there are general characteristics that contain such patterns:
- the younger the child, the more often he has a bowel movement,
- feces become formalized depending on the growing up of the child,
- as the diet expands, the color of feces changes from light to darker color,
- sometimes streaks of transparent mucus may appear in the feces, this is the norm and depends on individual periods in the baby's life, on the products that he uses for the first time.
To distinguish between norm and pathology, you need to know the stool standard in children at different ages. In a child under 3 months, the norm is yellow, liquid or gruel-like feces with a frequency of 15-18 times a day, in children under 3 years of age, feces are yellow or brown, partially decorated, up to 3 times a day, in children over 3 years old, feces are issued , brown, occurs once a day. Such indicators are the average norm for children of different ages. Having an understanding of the characteristics, we can judge whether there are violations in the child after taking medications.
Causes of Diarrhea in Children
Diarrhea is not an independent disease. It indicates any disturbances in the digestive system. In young children, all causes of diarrhea can be divided into:
- changes in the diet of a nursing mother,
- pathological changes in the structure of the intestine,
- intestinal dysbiosis,
- individual intolerance to specific products,
- intestinal infections
- overfeeding a child
- inflammatory processes in the small and large intestines,
- the introduction of complementary foods and allergic reactions to certain types of food.
For older children, the main causes are added nerve stress, food poisoning, diarrhea after taking antibiotics.
Sometimes it happens that in the treatment of a disease without antibiotics it is impossible to do. These drugs can cause diarrhea after they are taken, since the microflora in the intestine is disturbed.This condition is accompanied by pain in the abdomen, a deterioration in well-being, weakness, and a decrease in the body's natural protective function. Intestinal dysbiosis is not considered a separate disease, it is attributed to the concomitant syndrome with many ailments, which consists in changing the balance of bacteria in the intestine.
After antibiotic therapy, a disorder of the stool appears, its character changes (bowel movements are foamy, liquid, fetid), bloating, painful colic of a similar nature, dyspepsia in the intestine appear, and body temperature often rises. The child suffers from a loss of appetite, sleep, nausea and weakness, lethargy may occur. The baby becomes moody, there is anxiety, the child may have irritation in the anus.
As for infants, diarrhea here requires special attention. The cause of diarrhea in newborns is often the use of oral antibacterial agents without concomitant therapy with lactobacilli and probiotics. For infants, the danger of this condition lies in the possible dehydration of the body in a short time.
Treatment of dysbiosis
The doctor should choose not only drugs that eliminate diarrhea, but also proper nutrition in case of illness. To treat dysbacteriosis, it is necessary to start with taking medications that help eliminate the symptoms and factors that provoke the ailment. Such agents containing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are aimed at normalizing microflora, which serves to stimulate immunity and protect against harmful microorganisms.
At the same time, dietary nutrition is observed, the use of dairy products, raw vegetables and fruits, and fatty foods is limited. All these products can irritate the intestinal mucosa.
Recovery of a child after antibiotic therapy consists in taking pre- and probiotics. It is very important to remember that prescribing antibiotics to a child alone is not permissible. This should only be done by a doctor after examination. There is no need to change the course prescribed by the doctor and increase or decrease the dosage. To minimize side effects, it is recommended to take preparations containing bifidobacteria and lactobacilli (Linex, Lactiale, Hilak forte, Bifiform, Bifidumbacterin). Such drugs are helpers to the intestines in restoring normal microflora.
It is possible to treat diarrhea after taking antibiotics by combining the intake of beneficial bacteria with a therapeutic diet, which consists in eliminating fatty, spicy, fried foods, dairy products, raw vegetables and fruits, sweets. In parallel, the child needs to be given a large amount of liquid (fruit drinks, unsweetened tea, dried fruit compote, decoctions of fennel, chamomile, St. John's wort, mint). Herbs will help eliminate the inflammatory process from the walls of the intestine. Rehydration solutions are also prescribed. One of the very effective means after taking antibiotics is Acidophilus. All drugs aimed at normalizing microflora must be taken along with antibacterial agents, starting from the first day of taking the medicine. According to doctors, diarrhea after taking antibacterial agents goes away on its own, but in order to speed up the recovery process after such treatment, it is worthwhile to use drugs containing beneficial bacteria in parallel.
Diet and treatment with special drugs are the key to a quick and successful recovery of the child and eliminate an unpleasant ailment.